Hepatitis B virus infection, structure, genotypes, and epidemiology - A review HBV infection

Main Article Content

Bader S Alotaibi https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6878-257X

Keywords

Hepatitis b virus, Replication, Sub genotypes, Chronic hepatitis, HBV vaccine

Abstract

There are currently 250 million people infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) worldwide, despite the availability of a prophylactic vaccine for many years and the use of efficient and well-tolerated viral suppressive drugs since 1998. In this review, I go through the most recent developments in the structure, and epidemiology and biology of the virus, look at changes in the way the disease is currently being treated, and investigate novel, cutting-edge treatments that are being developed for the treatment of HBV infection. Genotypes and serological subtypes have a strong and statistically significant association, and in some circumstances, serological subtypes can be utilized to distinguish between sub genotypes. geographic distribution of certain genotypes and subgenotypes varies and plays a crucial role in the clinical manifestation of infection as well as the response to antiviral medication. Thanks to advancements in genetics, the prospect for vaccinations, and tailored management to target the integration of virus with host. HBV persistence occurs due to covalently closed circular DNA can rarely be removed by current pharmacological therapies. Alternative treatment approaches, such as those built on silencing of viral. According to reports, HBV DNA levels can be inhibited and conversion of HBeAg to antibody to HBe Ag can be induced by antiviral medication like nucleotide analog (NUC), which can prevent liver-related death. Additionally, there is a critical need for the creation of global archives of standardized HBV reagents and protocols that can be accessible by all HBV researchers. The plan for HBV cure research presented in this position paper will make a significant contribution to the objective of eradicating HBV infection globally.

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