The Battle against COVID-19 in Jordan: A cross-Sectional Study Assessing the Experience of Jordanians who have been Infected with COVID-19

Main Article Content

Razan I. Nassar
Samar Thiab
Iman A. Basheti


Coronavirus, COVID-19, Pandemics, Pharmacists, Jordan


Background: Patients infected with coronavirus have new experiences and hence needs from the healthcare sector. Pharmacists can play vital roles in adopting innovative strategies to meet such needs. Objectives: To assess the experience of people who have been infected with coronavirus, and to assess the roles played by pharmacists to meet their new needs. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional online survey was developed based on previous literature, validated, and conducted in Jordan (3-13 May 2021). Results: The mean age of the study participants (n=470) was 34.31 years (SD=11.75). About three-quarters were females. Out of the study participants, 24.0% reported to having been infected with the coronavirus previously, and 48.9% of them were infected after contacting an infected family member/friend. Only 36.0% ranked their commitment to the preventative measures as “very committed” before getting infected. The most reported symptom was fatigue (77.1%). The most used medicine/supplement was vitamin C (85.3%), followed by pain relievers (77.7%), and zinc tablets (75.3%). More than half of the participants (66.4%) documented that their anxiety and stress levels increased during their infection. More than half of the participants (53.7%) strongly agreed/agreed that pharmacists had an important and effective role during their infection. Conclusion: The experience of individuals who contracted the coronavirus indicated that few were very committed to preventative measures before getting infected. Fatigue was the main experienced symptom, while vitamin C was the supplement used the most. About half of the participants believed that pharmacists have an important role in managing their needs during their COVID-19 infection

Abstract 546 | PDF Downloads 538


1. Suleiman A, Bsisu I, Guzu H, et al. Preparedness of Frontline Doctors in Jordan Healthcare Facilities to COVID-19 Outbreak.  2020;17(9):3181. 
2. Al Qutob R, Ajlouni M, Abufaraj M, et al. Jordan’s Public and Surveillance Health Policies: During and After COVID-19. Jordan. J Pharm Sci. 2020;13.
3. Alqutob R, Al Nsour M, Tarawneh MR, et al. COVID-19 crisis in Jordan: Response, scenarios, strategies, and recommendations. JMIR Public Heal Surveill. 2020;6(3):1-6.
4. The World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) Q&As.
5. Visacri MB, Figueiredo IV, Lima T de M. Role of pharmacist during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2021;17(1):1799-1806.
6. Bukhari N, Rasheed H, Nayyer B, et al. Pharmacists at the frontline beating the COVID-19 pandemic. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2020;13(8):1-4.
7. Hess K, Bach A, Won K, et al. Community Pharmacists Roles During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Pharm Pract. 2020;35(3):469-476.
8. Liu S, Luo P, Tang M, et al. Providing pharmacy services during the coronavirus pandemic. Int J Clin Pharm . 2020;42(2):299- 304.
9. Mallhi TH, Liaqat A, Abid A, et al. Multilevel Engagements of Pharmacists During the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Way Forward. Front Public Heal. 2020;8(12):1-14.
10. The World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Available from: diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
11. Ministry of Health. Available from:
12. FIP. Information and interim guidelines for pharmacists and the pharmacy workforce. Int Pharm Fed (FIP Heal Advis. 2020; Available from:
13. Basheti IA, El-hajji F, Nassar R, et al. Pharmacists’ awareness of COVID-19 and perceptions of their roles, barriers, and roles of policymakers: Exploring the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Int J Clin Pract. 2021;75(6):1-11.
14. Huang C, Wang Y, Li X, et al. Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet. 2020;395(10223):497-506.
15. Nassar RI, Thiab S, Alkoudsi KT, et al. COVID-19 infected patients ’ experiences in Syria, and the role of the pharmacists during their infection. Pharmacotherapy. 2022;20(1):2617.
16. Asan U, Soyer A. Failure mode and effects analysis under uncertainty: a literature review and tutorial. Vol. 97, Intelligent Systems Reference Library. 2016;265-325.
17. Ritchie H, Ortiz-Ospina E, Beltekian D, et al. Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19).
18. Jordan: This is how we prepare for the third wave of Coronavirus. Available from: ةثلاثلا-انوروك-ةجومل-دعتسن-ندرألا- 1433707
19. Is Jordan facing a second wave of the Coronavirus?. Available from: ؟انوروك-سوريف-نم-ةيناث-ةجوم-ندرألا-هجاوي-له-انوروك-سوريف
20. The Jordanian government announces new measures to confront Coronavirus. Available from: news/228568
21. Basheti IA, Nassar RI, Halalşah İ. The Impact of the Coronavirus Pandemic on the Learning Process among Students: A Comparison between Jordan and Turkey. Educ Sci. 2022;12(5):365.
22. Ministry Of Health. Sectors Opening Plan.
23. Rahman HS, Aziz MS, Hussein RH, et al. The transmission modes and sources of COVID-19: A systematic review. Int J Surg Open. 2020;26:125-136.
24. A fine for those who do not wear a mask and gloves, new procedures in Jordan. Available from: jordan/2020/05/ ندرألا-يف-ةديدج-تاءارجإ-نيزافقو-ةمامك-يدتري-ال-نمل-ةمارغلا/ 03
25. Al-Hussami M, El-Hneiti M, Salameh AB, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and behavior towards COVID-19 among jordanian residents during the quarantine period of the COVID-19 pandemic: A national survey. Disaster Med Public Health Prep. 2021;16(4):1438-
26. Grant MC, Geoghegan L, Arbyn M, et al. The prevalence of symptoms in 24,410 adults infected by the novel coronavirus (SARSCoV- 2; COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis of 148 studies from 9 countries. PLoS One. 2020;15(6). http://dx.doi.
27. Attendees W. Large Outbreak of Coronavirus Disease among Wedding Attendees, Jordan. 2020;26(9):2165-2167.
28. Samrah SM, Al-mistarehi AW, Ibnian AM, et al. COVID-19 outbreak in Jordan : Epidemiological features, clinical characteristics, and laboratory findings. Ann Med Surg. 2020;57:103-108.
29. Ministry Of Health. Emergency Phone Numbers. Available from:
30. Hamulka J, Jeruszka-Bielak M, Górnicka M, et al. Dietary supplements during covid-19 outbreak. Results of google trends analysis supported by plifecovid-19 online studies. Nutrients. 2021;13(1):1-17.
31. Gao D, Xu M, Wang G, et al. The efficiency and safety of high-dose vitamin C in patients with COVID-19 : a retrospective cohort study. 2021;13(5):7020-7034.
32. Ang L, Song E, Lee HW, et al. Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. J Clin Med. 2020;9(5):1583.
33. Ang L, Lee HW, Choi JY, et al. Herbal medicine and pattern identification for treating COVID-19: a rapid review of guidelines. Integr Med Res. 2020;9(2):100407.
34. Elengoe A. Indian spices boost the immune system against covid-19. Ann Univ Dunarea Jos Galati, Fascicle VI Food Technol. 2020;44(2):189-206.
35. Mazza MG, De Lorenzo R, Conte C, et al. Anxiety and depression in COVID-19 survivors: Role of inflammatory and clinical predictors. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;89(1):594-600.
36. Mao L, Wang M, Chen S, et al. Neurological Manifestations of Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A Retrospective Case Series Study. SSRN Electron J. 2020;77(6):683-690.
37. Muflih SM, Al-Azzam S, Abuhammad S, et al. Pharmacists’ experience, competence and perception of telepharmacy technology in response to COVID-19. Int J Clin Pract. 2021;75(7):102433.
38. Basheti IA, Nassar R, Barakat M, et al. Pharmacists’ perceived barriers towards delivering their emergency roles during the COVID-19 pandemic and perceived policymakers’ responsibilities. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2020;13(1):1-11. https://doi.
39. Bethlehem J. Selection bias in web surveys. Int Stat Rev. 2010;78(2):161-188.