Pharmacy Practice <p><strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is a free full-text peer-reviewed journal with a scope on pharmacy practice. <strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is published quarterly. <strong>Pharmacy Practice <span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">does not charge and will never charge any publication fee or article processing charge (APC) to the author</span><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #ff0000; text-decoration: underline;">s</span></span></strong>.</p> en-US (Fernando Fernandez-Llimos) (Administration) Wed, 28 Apr 2021 17:45:59 +0100 OJS 60 The competency of Indonesian pharmacy students in handling a self-medication request for a cough: a simulated patient study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cough is a common symptom for which people frequently present to community pharmacies. Previous articles from developing countries have shown that the provision of self-medication consultation for cough in community pharmacies were suboptimal, with knowledge deficiency being a contributing factor. However, little is known regarding the ability of pharmacy students in handling self-medication consultations in developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To measure the competency of Indonesian pharmacy students in providing self-medication consultations for patients with chronic cough and to identify factors associated with the provision of appropriate advice.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: This study is a cross-sectional study. A simulated patient method using a product and a symptom-based request of chronic cough was used in students from a pharmacy school in Indonesia. The nature and amount of information gathered and advice provided by pharmacy students were noted and audio-recorded. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the provision of appropriate advice.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The information gathered by participating students was not comprehensive. The most common types of information gathered were related to the nature and duration of the cough. Information relating to accompanying symptoms, medications, and allergies was gathered in less than 60% of the participating students for both product and symptom based scenarios. The appropriate advice of direct medical referral was provided in 54% and 56% of the 183 participating students for the product and symptom-based request scenarios respectively. Asking about symptom duration and prior medical conditions were positively associated with the provision of appropriate advice in the symptom and product based requests respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Student competency in self-medication consultation for chronic cough needs to be improved. Appropriate information-gathering is a predictor of appropriate advice. Further qualitative research identifying factors affecting students’ competence in providing self-medication consultation is required, so that suitable interventions are developed and implemented.</p> Cecilia Brata, Steven V. Halim, Eko Setiawan, Bobby Presley, Yosi I. Wibowo, Carl R. Schneider Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors Wed, 28 Apr 2021 17:45:35 +0100 Measuring depression and anxiety prevalence among Iraqi healthcare college students using hospital anxiety and depression scale <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The study aimed to 1) measure the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Iraqi pharmacy and medical students at a number of universities in Baghdad using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and 2) investigate the association between various sociodemographic factors and students’ HADS scores.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was based on a cross-sectional descriptive design in four universities in Baghdad, Iraq. Depression and anxiety were screened using an Arabic version of the HADS. An online survey was administered via Qualtrics to convenience samples of students at four colleges of pharmacy and a college of medicine between March and June 2018. Multiple linear regression was used to identify factors associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among the participants.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The researchers received 750 usable surveys. The participating students spent more time browsing social media (6.64 hours/day) than studying (1.92 hours/day) and exercising (2.83 hours/week). Approximately forty-six percent (45.9%) of the participants had scores that indicated depression symptoms and one-quarter (24.8%) had scores that indicated depression borderline symptoms. More than one-half (52.1%) of the participants had scores that indicated anxiety symptoms, while 20.1% had scores that indicated anxiety borderline symptoms. According to the multiple linear regression analysis, more depression and anxiety symptoms were significantly (p-value &lt;0.05) associated with higher study hours weekly and lower sleep hours at night, academic achievement, and colleagues and family social support during exams.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Pharmacy and medical students may be vulnerable to depression and anxiety because of long study hours.. To reduce their levels of anxiety and depression, they may need more social support, more exercise, more sleep, less social media use and a lower academic workload.</p> Sarmed H. Kathem, Ali A. Al Jumaili, Malak Noor-Aldeen , Noor Najah , Dema Ali Khalid Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors Fri, 07 May 2021 20:44:34 +0100 Primary health care policy and vision for community pharmacy and pharmacists in Estonia <p>Estonia, with a population of 1.3 million, is the smallest country in the three Baltic States. As a post-soviet country, Estonia over the past 30 years has built up a new health care system, including the pharmaceutical sector. The GDP allocated to cover health care costs is significantly lower in Estonia compared to the EU average. Despite this, Estonia has excelled in the development of digital e-services in healthcare at both the domestic and international levels. The development and integration of the Estonian community pharmacy sector into primary health care has been influenced and affected by the liberalization within pharmaceutical policy and the lack of cooperation with the rest of the health care sector. Community pharmacy ownership and location matters have been prevalent. The promotion of the pharmacy services has mostly taken place on the basis of a professional initiative, as cooperation with the state has not been active. Possibly the professional fragmentation of the pharmacy sector may have played a negative role. The community pharmacy network in Estonia, especially in cities, enables fast and convenient access to the pharmacy services. Community Pharmacy Service Quality Guidelines support the harmonization of the provided services and patient-centered concept to enhance the patient role and involvement in their care. In recent years, community pharmacies in Estonia have also offered various extended services that are more or less integrated with the primary health care system. New developments may be affected by frequent changes in legislation and a shortage of professional staff in community pharmacies. The ownership reform of pharmacies in 2020 has so far not had a significant impact on the operation of pharmacies or the quality of services provided.</p> Kristiina Sepp, Anita Tuula, Veera Bobrova, Daisy Volmer Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors Sun, 02 May 2021 11:05:06 +0100