Pharmacy Practice <p><strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is a free full-text peer-reviewed journal with a scope on pharmacy practice. <strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is published quarterly. <strong>Pharmacy Practice <span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">does not charge and will never charge any publication fee or article processing charge (APC) to the author</span><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #ff0000; text-decoration: underline;">s</span></span></strong>.</p> Centro de Investigaciones y Publicaciones Farmaceuticas en-US Pharmacy Practice 1885-642X Feasibility of cardiovascular risk screening in Portuguese community pharmacies <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of human mortality. As highly accessible and qualified health professionals, community pharmacists can be included in the early detection of patients at risk for CVD by implementing CVD screening programs.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the feasibility of CVD risk screening services in Portuguese community pharmacies from the evaluation of customers acceptability.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a community pharmacy in Portugal. The purpose of entering the pharmacy was recorded for all customers. Afterwards, the customers were invited to be interviewed by the pharmacist, who registered their willingness to participate and collected the participants’ data and biochemical and physical parameters to assess their CV risk by applying the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) model. For the participants who were not eligible for the SCORE-based risk assessment, the pharmacist considered the major modifiable CVD risk factors - hypertension, dyslipidemia, smoking habits, obesity, impaired fasting glucose and sedentary behavior - according to the ESC guidelines.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Picking up medication was the most prevalent reason 69.8% (n=1,600) for entering the pharmacy, and among the contacted customers, 56.4% (n=621) agreed to have their CVD risk assessed. Of the 588 participants, 56.6% (n=333) were already on CV pharmacotherapy and were therefore not eligible for screening. Of the 43.4% (n=255) CV pharmacotherapy-naïve participants, 94.9% (n=242) were screened with at least one CVD risk factor; 52.9% (n=135) were not eligible for the SCORE assessment, of which 92.6% (n=125) presented CVD risk factors. Of the 120 SCORE eligible participants, 80.0% (n=96) were at least at moderate risk of CVD.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: We determined the feasibility of CVD risk screening in Portuguese community pharmacies, as we found high customer acceptability, noted the reasons for nonattendance, and found a high prevalence of CVD risk factors in at-risk patients. This is an opportunity for Portuguese community pharmacists to take a leading role in the early detection of CVD.</p> Anabela A. Fonseca Tacio M. Lima Margarida Castel-Branco Isabel V. Figueiredo Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 19 2 2255 2255 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2255 The competency of Indonesian pharmacy students in handling a self-medication request for a cough: a simulated patient study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Cough is a common symptom for which people frequently present to community pharmacies. Previous articles from developing countries have shown that the provision of self-medication consultation for cough in community pharmacies were suboptimal, with knowledge deficiency being a contributing factor. However, little is known regarding the ability of pharmacy students in handling self-medication consultations in developing countries.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To measure the competency of Indonesian pharmacy students in providing self-medication consultations for patients with chronic cough and to identify factors associated with the provision of appropriate advice.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: This study is a cross-sectional study. A simulated patient method using a product and a symptom-based request of chronic cough was used in students from a pharmacy school in Indonesia. The nature and amount of information gathered and advice provided by pharmacy students were noted and audio-recorded. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors associated with the provision of appropriate advice.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The information gathered by participating students was not comprehensive. The most common types of information gathered were related to the nature and duration of the cough. Information relating to accompanying symptoms, medications, and allergies was gathered in less than 60% of the participating students for both product and symptom based scenarios. The appropriate advice of direct medical referral was provided in 54% and 56% of the 183 participating students for the product and symptom-based request scenarios respectively. Asking about symptom duration and prior medical conditions were positively associated with the provision of appropriate advice in the symptom and product based requests respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Student competency in self-medication consultation for chronic cough needs to be improved. Appropriate information-gathering is a predictor of appropriate advice. Further qualitative research identifying factors affecting students’ competence in providing self-medication consultation is required, so that suitable interventions are developed and implemented.</p> Cecilia Brata Steven V. Halim Eko Setiawan Bobby Presley Yosi I. Wibowo Carl R. Schneider Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-04-28 2021-04-28 19 2 2269 2269 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2269 Improving outpatient medication counselling in hospital pharmacy settings: a behavioral analysis using the theoretical domains framework and behavior change wheel <p><strong>Background</strong>: Despite the importance of medication counselling for patients, it is common knowledge that it is often sub-optimally carried out by pharmacy staff. While some interventions have been designed to help improve counselling, no study till date has used the Capability Opportunity and Motivation behavior model (COM-B) or Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) as a basis for identifying evidence-based intervention strategies to improve medication counselling.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To understand barriers/facilitators to optimal medication counselling by conducting a behavioral analysis using the COM-B model and TDF, and use the Behavior Change Wheel (BCW) as a basis for identifying evidence-based intervention strategies and policy categories that could be used to improve outpatient medication counselling by pharmacy staff in hospital settings located within Northwest Nigeria.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from 25 purposively sampled pharmacy staff working at eight major public hospitals, from January till March 2020. Data from the interviews were then transcribed and deductively coded using the COM-B model and TDF. These findings were then used to identify areas requiring change, as well as the intervention type and policy functions required to support these changes.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Findings from the behavioral analysis revealed shortfalls in pharmacy staff capability, opportunity and motivation with respect to outpatient medication counselling. To improve their counselling behaviors, change was identified as necessary in eight TDF domains namely ‘knowledge’, ‘interpersonal skills’, ‘memory’ ‘environmental context’, ‘social influences’, ‘intentions’, ‘reinforcement’ and ‘beliefs about capabilities’. Seven intervention functions including ‘education’, ‘training’, ‘modelling’, ‘enablement’ and ‘environmental restructuring’, in addition to three policy categories (‘guidelines’, ‘regulations’ and ‘environmental/social planning’) were also identified as relevant to future intervention design.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Various factors were identified as affecting medication counselling by the pharmacy staff, with several of them requiring changes if counselling was to be improved upon. Multi-component interventions combining several of these intervention functions are recommended for hospital authorities and other relevant stakeholders to improve outpatient medication counselling.</p> Samirah N. Abdu-Aguye Shafiu Mohammed Nuhu M. Danjuma Kamilu S. Labaran Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-24 2021-05-24 19 2 2271 2271 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2271 Assessment of community pharmacists’ communication and comfort levels when interacting with Deaf and hard of hearing patients <p><strong>Background</strong>: Deaf and hard of hearing patients who use sign language face considerable communication barriers while accessing pharmacy services. Low comfort-levels between community pharmacists and Deaf and hard of hearing patients result in poor interactions and increase patient safety risks.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: 1) To examine the way community pharmacists interact with Deaf and hard of hearing patients in Malaysia, and their level of comfort in such interactions. 2) To examine how comfort-levels vary by the preferred communication methods, resources and employer support.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This cross-sectional study was conducted among registered community pharmacists practicing in Malaysia. Questionnaire items included comfort-levels of community pharmacists when interacting with Deaf and hard of hearing patients, used and preferred communication methods, necessary resources, and perceived employer’s level of support. Based on the list of registered pharmacies, the questionnaire with a pre-paid return envelope was mailed out while pharmacies close to the university were approached in person. This questionnaire was distributed online using Google Form. Comparisons between comfort-levels and study parameters were analyzed using independent t-tests and ANOVA.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 297 community pharmacists responded (response rate 29.2%). Higher comfort-levels were reported in those who had received between 1 to 5 prescriptions as compared to those who did not receive prescriptions from Deaf and hard of hearing patients (MD= -0.257, SD=0.104, p=0.042). More than 80% used written information and only 3.4% had used the services of a qualified sign language interpreter throughout their community pharmacist career. Significantly lower comfort-levels (p=0.0004) were reported in community pharmacists who perceived training in sign language as a necessity to interact with Deaf and hard of hearing patients (M=3.6, SD=0.9) versus those who were not interested in sign language training (M=3.8, SD=0.6).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The results suggest that community pharmacists were neither extremely comfortable nor averse when interacting with Deaf and hard of hearing patients. The lack of significant findings in terms of comfort-levels may indicate other potential drivers for their choice of communication method when interacting with Deaf and hard of hearing patients.</p> Elizabeth Y. Chong Sabrina A. Jacob Amutha Ramadas Pei H. Goh Uma D. Palanisamy Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-12 2021-05-12 19 2 2274 2274 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2274 The Pharmacists’ and pharmacy technicians’ scopes of practice in the management of minor ailments at community pharmacies in Indonesia: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Managing minor ailments in community pharmacy is an evolving pharmacy service in developing countries. Defined scopes of practice for pharmacy staff are essential for the safe management of minor ailments. Limited research exists regarding the perceptions of Indonesian pharmacists’ and pharmacy technicians’ scopes of practice in providing minor ailments management services.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate pharmacists’ and pharmacy technicians’ understanding of their scopes of practice, perceived competency and factors influencing the delivery of minor ailments services in Indonesian community pharmacies.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Cross-sectional surveys were conducted during January-February 2020 of pharmacists and pharmacy technicians attending seminars conducted by relevant Indonesian Associations in Central Java, Indonesia. Percentage of common responses (PCR) described similarity of perceived scopes of practice for pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified associations of scopes of practice with pharmacy characteristics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 185 pharmacists and 142 pharmacy technicians participated. Pharmacy technicians performed minor ailment consultations, however, if considered beyond their scope of practice, they referred the patient to the pharmacist (T=120/142, 84.5%). Vaginal thrush, bacterial conjunctivitis, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, and acute pain were minor ailments perceived only within a pharmacist’s scope (PCR above 60%). Of 34 minor ailments, 11 showed PCR values between 40-60% overlapping pharmacists and pharmacy technicians perceived scopes of practice (allergy/rash, back pain, cold sores, dermatitis, diarrhoea, eczema, hayfever, haemorrhoids, rheumatism, sore throat, and superficial wounds). Back pain, cold sores, dermatitis, and sore throat associated pharmacists’ scope of practice with years of practice experience (p-value&lt;0.05). Pharmacy technicians perceived their scopes of practice to be wider than perceived by pharmacists.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Discordance between pharmacists’ and pharmacy technicians’ perceived scopes of minor ailments management highlights the need for clearly defined scopes of practice for each professional group. Each professional group must practise within their competence to ensure safe pharmacy practices.</p> Vinci Mizranita Tin F. Sim Bruce Sunderland Richard Parsons Jeffery D. Hughes Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-26 2021-05-26 19 2 2295 2295 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2295 Measuring depression and anxiety prevalence among Iraqi healthcare college students using hospital anxiety and depression scale <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The study aimed to 1) measure the prevalence of depression and anxiety among Iraqi pharmacy and medical students at a number of universities in Baghdad using Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and 2) investigate the association between various sociodemographic factors and students’ HADS scores.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This study was based on a cross-sectional descriptive design in four universities in Baghdad, Iraq. Depression and anxiety were screened using an Arabic version of the HADS. An online survey was administered via Qualtrics to convenience samples of students at four colleges of pharmacy and a college of medicine between March and June 2018. Multiple linear regression was used to identify factors associated with depression and anxiety symptoms among the participants.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The researchers received 750 usable surveys. The participating students spent more time browsing social media (6.64 hours/day) than studying (1.92 hours/day) and exercising (2.83 hours/week). Approximately forty-six percent (45.9%) of the participants had scores that indicated depression symptoms and one-quarter (24.8%) had scores that indicated depression borderline symptoms. More than one-half (52.1%) of the participants had scores that indicated anxiety symptoms, while 20.1% had scores that indicated anxiety borderline symptoms. According to the multiple linear regression analysis, more depression and anxiety symptoms were significantly (p-value &lt;0.05) associated with higher study hours weekly and lower sleep hours at night, academic achievement, and colleagues and family social support during exams.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Pharmacy and medical students may be vulnerable to depression and anxiety because of long study hours.. To reduce their levels of anxiety and depression, they may need more social support, more exercise, more sleep, less social media use and a lower academic workload.</p> Sarmed H. Kathem Ali A. Al Jumaili Malak Noor-Aldeen Noor Najah Dema Ali Khalid Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-07 2021-05-07 19 2 2303 2303 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2303 Public knowledge, beliefs, psychological responses, and behavioural changes during the outbreak of COVID-19 in the Middle East <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the knowledge, believes, psychological and behavioural impact of COVID-19 on the general population in the Middle East, exploring how it impacted public lives.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A descriptive cross-sectional online survey was sent to a convenience sample in the Middle East through social media (Facebook and WhatsApp) between 16<sup>th</sup> of June and 30<sup>th</sup> of June 2020. The questionnaire was designed to collect the demographic, participant’s source of information regarding COVID-19, knowledge and believes about COVID-19, the psychological consequences of COVID-19, impact of COVID-19 on participant’s behaviour. The final version of the questionnaire was further tested for content validity by experts in the field.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 2,061 participants completed the survey, with the majority being females (n=1394, 67.6%), from urban areas (n=1896, 92%) and the majority were from countries of The Levant (n=1199, 58.1%), followed by the Arabian Peninsula (n=392, 19.1%), Iraq (n=300, 14.6%) and Egypt (n=138, 6.7%). Few participants (3.0%) reported to have been infected and many (n=1847, 89.6%) were committed to quarantine at home. Social media platforms were the most common sources of information (41.2%). Many (63%) believed that COVID-19 is a biological weapon and were afraid of visiting crowded places (85%). The majority avoided public facilities (86.9%) such as prayer places and believed that the news about COVID-19 made them anxious (49.5%).</p> Husam Abazid Iman A. Basheti Esraa E. Al-Jomaa Ayham Abazid Warda M. Kloub Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-25 2021-05-25 19 2 2306 2306 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2306 Medication adherence and persistence of psoriatic arthritis patients treated with biological therapy in a specialty pharmacy in Brazil: a prospective observational study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Pharmaceutical services in Brazil provide access, supply, and rational use of drugs for all population and an effort has been made to improve the quality of these services. Biological drugs are high-cost drugs supplied in Brazil that can inhibit disease progression and improve the quality of life of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) patients. However, some patients did not achieve therapeutic goals.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the medication adherence and persistence of PsA patients treated with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors (anti-TNF) drugs and their associated factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A prospective observational study was performed at a single-specialty pharmacy in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Medication adherence, persistence, and clinical outcomes were evaluated at 12 months of follow-up. Medication persistence was historically compared to overall PsA patients treated in Brazil. Associated factors were identified through log-binomial regression.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: One hundred ninety-seven PsA patients were included in the study, of whom 147 (74.6%) and 142 (72.1%) had medication adherence and persistence, respectively. Patients treated with infliximab presented the highest adherence (90.5%) and persistence rate (95.2%) in comparison to patients treated with other drugs, except for adalimumab versus infliximab for adherence outcome. All clinical measures significantly improved in patients with medication adherence and persistence. Medication persistence was higher for patients attended by specialty pharmacy than other PsA patients in Brazil. The associated factors to higher medication adherence were lower disease activity by BASDAI, being non-white race, and intravenous drug use. The associated factors to higher medication persistence were lower disease activity by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Activity Index (BASDAI), intravenous drug use, non-use of corticoids and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and comorbidity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Patients with medication adherence and persistence had significant improvements in clinical measures, functionality, and quality of life. High medication adherence and persistence to biological therapy were observed and associated with lesser disease activity at baseline. Also, medication persistence to PsA patients attended in specialty pharmacy was higher than the overall PsA population in Brazil, which indicates the importance of pharmaceutical services to provide health care and promote the effectiveness and safety of biological therapies.</p> Ana F. Souza Michael R. da Silva Jéssica B. dos Santos Alessandra M. Almeida Francisco A. Acurcio Juliana Alvares-Teodoro Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-28 2021-05-28 19 2 2312 2312 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2312 Why do pharmacists leave the profession? A mixed-method exploratory study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Recent New Zealand policy documents aim for pharmacists to be retained, and promote the provision of extended clinical pharmacy services. However, younger pharmacists have expressed dissatisfaction with the profession on informal social for a.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To explore the characteristics, and perspectives of pharmacy as a career, of recent Bachelor of Pharmacy (BPharm, four-year degree) graduates who have left, or are seriously considering leaving the New Zealand pharmacy profession in the near future and where they have gone, or plan to go.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We conducted a cross-sectional study with a mixed-method explanatory sequential design. An anonymous online survey among those who completed their pharmacy undergraduate degree (BPharm or equivalent) in 2003 or later and who had left or who were seriously considering leaving the New Zealand pharmacy profession in the next five years, was open from 1<sup>st</sup> December 2018 to 1<sup>st</sup> February 2019. Recruitment occurred via University alumni databases, pharmacy professional organisations, pharmaceutical print media, social media and word-of-mouth. Ten semi-structured interviews were then conducted with a purposive sample of survey respondents. Descriptive statistics were generated from the quantitative data and qualitative data were analysed using manifest content analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We received 327 analysable surveys of which 40.4% (n=132) were from those who had already left the New Zealand pharmacy sector at the time of the data collection and the rest (59.6% n=195) were those working within the sector, but seriously considering leaving the profession. Reasons most commonly reported for studying pharmacy were having an interest in health and wanting to work with people. The most common reasons for leaving, or wanting to leave, were dissatisfaction with the professional environment, including inadequate remuneration, and a perceived lack of career pathways or promotion opportunities. A wide range of career destinations were declared, with medicine being most frequently reported.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Most of the reasons for leaving/considering leaving the profession reported relate to the values and features of the pharmacy profession such as the professional environment, remuneration and career pathways. These findings are consistent with other studies and may represent a barrier to achieving the aims of recent health policy documents.</p> Trudi J. Aspden Pushkar R. Silwal Munyaradzi Marowa Rhys Ponton Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-06-03 2021-06-03 19 2 2332 2332 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2332 Patient satisfaction with medication therapy adherence clinic services in a district hospital: a cross-sectional study <p><strong>Background</strong>: Patient satisfaction is one of the essential indicators for assessing the quality of healthcare services being delivered, including pharmacy ambulatory care service, as it determines the practicability and sustainability of the service provided. As such, pharmaceutical care services provided during medication therapy adherence clinic (MTAC) sessions need to be assessed to maximise its effectiveness and benefits to the patients.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to assess the association between patient satisfaction and socio-demographic characteristics, as well as the predictors for patient satisfaction.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the medical outpatient department in Hospital Port Dickson from January until October 2019. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit potential study participants. Patient satisfaction was measured using Validated Patient Satisfaction with Pharmacist Services Questionnaire (PSPSQ2.0), consisted of quality of care and interpersonal relationship between pharmacist and patient domains. Descriptive data were presented as mean and standard deviation or numbers and percentages, while Independent Sample t-test, ANOVA and post-hoc analysis, and multiple linear regression were used for inferential data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There were 37 (25%) diabetes MTAC, 36 (24.3%) respiratory MTAC, and 75 (50.7%) warfarin MTAC patients recruited. On average, the mean overall satisfaction score was 3.30(SD=0.43). The mean satisfaction score in the interpersonal relationship domain [3.35(SD=0.44)] was higher than the quality of care domain [3.26(SD=0.45)]. There was a significant association between gender, education level, and patient satisfaction towards pharmaceutical care service (p&lt;0.05). Gender and education level statistically predicted respondents' satisfaction with MTAC services (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The overall patient satisfaction towards MTAC services in this setting was high. Gender and education level were significant predictors for patient satisfaction. These findings could potentially contribute to the planning of MTAC services in the future.</p> Yi C. Sim Intan S. Mohd-Rosli Boon T. Lau Siew Y. Ng Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-06-02 2021-06-02 19 2 2353 2353 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2353 Bridging health disparities: a national survey of ambulatory care pharmacists in underserved areas <p><strong>Background</strong>: There is a shortage of primary care medical providers, particularly in rural communities and communities of racial and ethnic minority groups. Clinical pharmacists can help fill gaps in care among these vulnerable populations.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To identify characteristics of ambulatory care pharmacists that pursue and maintain employment within underserved areas.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: An original survey was distributed nationwide to ambulatory care clinical pharmacists in underserved settings. Respondent characteristics were analyzed using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 111 completed surveys, a majority of respondents were White, non-Hispanic, female, with English as their only spoken language. A majority of pharmacists completed a clinical experience or specialized training focused on underserved care prior to their position. The top three motivators for pharmacists accepting their clinical position as well as staying at their job were passion for caring for underserved populations, the presence of a faculty appointment, or the freedom and flexibility of advanced clinical roles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: With a large majority of our respondents identifying as White and unilingual, there remains a large opportunity to increase diversity in the clinical pharmacy ambulatory care workforce caring for underserved populations. There is an observed correlation between early experiential or specialized training in underserved care and pharmacists pursuing employment in these areas. Thus, one potential long-term strategy to diversify and grow the ambulatory care clinical pharmacist workforce in underserved settings is for clinical practice sites to partner with colleges of pharmacy to recruit and maintain quality individuals who can meet the needs of diverse patient populations as well as expand student and resident training opportunities in underserved settings.</p> Morgan P. Stewart Rhianna Fink Emily Kosirog Joseph J. Saseen Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-29 2021-05-29 19 2 2359 2359 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2359 Patterns of medication errors involving pediatric population reported to the French Medication Error Guichet <p><strong>Background</strong>: Medication error is a global threat to patient safety, particularly in pediatrics. Yet, this issue remains understudied in this population, in both hospital and community settings.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To characterize medication errors involving pediatrics reported to the French Medication Error Guichet, and compare them with medication errors in adults, in each of the hospital and community settings.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a retrospective secondary data analysis of medication errors reported throughout 2013-2017. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were performed to compare actual and potential medication error reports between pediatrics (aged &lt;18 years) and adults (aged &gt;18 and &lt;60 years). Two subanalyses of actual medication errors with adverse drug reaction (ADR), and serious ADR were conducted.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>:&nbsp; We analyzed 4,718 medication error reports. In pediatrics, both in hospital (n=791) and community (n=1,541) settings, antibacterials for systemic use (n=121, 15.7%; n=157, 10.4%, respectively) and wrong dose error type (n=391, 49.6%; n=549, 35.7%, respectively) were frequently reported in medication errors. These characteristics were also significantly more likely to be associated with reported errors in pediatrics compared with adults. In the hospital setting, analgesics (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.59; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03:2.45), and blood substitutes and perfusion solutions (aOR=3.74; 95%CI 2.24:6.25) were more likely to be associated with reported medication errors in pediatrics; the latter drug class (aOR=3.02; 95%CI 1.59:5.72) along with wrong technique (aOR=2.28; 95%CI 1.01:5.19) and wrong route (aOR=2.74; 95%CI 1.22:6.15) error types related more to reported medication errors with serious ADR in pediatrics. In the community setting, the most frequently reported pediatric medication errors involved vaccines (n=389, 25.7%). Psycholeptics (aOR=2.42; 95%CI 1.36:4.31) were more likely to be associated with reported medication errors with serious ADR in pediatrics. Wrong technique error type (aOR=2.71; 95%CI 1.47:5.00) related more to reported medication errors with ADR in pediatrics.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: We identified pediatric-specific medication error patterns in the hospital and community settings. Our findings inform focused error prevention measures, and pave the way for interventional research targeting the needs of this population.</p> Christine Azar Delphine Allué Marie B. Valnet-Rabier Laurent Chouchana Fanny Rocher Dorothée Durand Nathalie Grené-Lerouge Nadine Saleh Patrick Maison Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-06-13 2021-06-13 19 2 2360 2360 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2360 Primary health care policy and vision for community pharmacy and pharmacists in Estonia <p>Estonia, with a population of 1.3 million, is the smallest country in the three Baltic States. As a post-soviet country, Estonia over the past 30 years has built up a new health care system, including the pharmaceutical sector. The GDP allocated to cover health care costs is significantly lower in Estonia compared to the EU average. Despite this, Estonia has excelled in the development of digital e-services in healthcare at both the domestic and international levels. The development and integration of the Estonian community pharmacy sector into primary health care has been influenced and affected by the liberalization within pharmaceutical policy and the lack of cooperation with the rest of the health care sector. Community pharmacy ownership and location matters have been prevalent. The promotion of the pharmacy services has mostly taken place on the basis of a professional initiative, as cooperation with the state has not been active. Possibly the professional fragmentation of the pharmacy sector may have played a negative role. The community pharmacy network in Estonia, especially in cities, enables fast and convenient access to the pharmacy services. Community Pharmacy Service Quality Guidelines support the harmonization of the provided services and patient-centered concept to enhance the patient role and involvement in their care. In recent years, community pharmacies in Estonia have also offered various extended services that are more or less integrated with the primary health care system. New developments may be affected by frequent changes in legislation and a shortage of professional staff in community pharmacies. The ownership reform of pharmacies in 2020 has so far not had a significant impact on the operation of pharmacies or the quality of services provided.</p> Kristiina Sepp Anita Tuula Veera Bobrova Daisy Volmer Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-02 2021-05-02 19 2 2404 2404 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2404 An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure: considerations for pharmacists delivering the National Diabetes Prevention Program <p>Prediabetes is highly prevalent in the United States affecting over 88 million adults. In 2010, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the National Diabetes Prevention Program (NDPP), an intensive lifestyle program consisting of a 16-lesson curriculum focused on diet, exercise, and behavior modification, with the ultimate goal to reduce progression from prediabetes to diabetes. Despite tens of millions of adults potentially qualifying to participate in the program, the uptake of the NDPP has been exceedingly low. As a result, the CDC has focused its efforts on engaging with local health departments and community partners, including community pharmacies, across the United States to scale-up enrollment in the NDPP. In this commentary we discuss factors affecting implementation of the NDPP in community pharmacies and other settings where pharmacists practice, including training, space, personnel, recruitment and enrollment, retention, and sustainability.</p> Dave L. Dixon Evan M. Sisson Lauren G. Pamulapati Rowan Spence Teresa M. Salgado Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-14 2021-05-14 19 2 2426 2426 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2426 Perspectives on the pharmacist’s “product”: a narrative review <p>Clarity about the pharmacist’s “product” is fundamental to developing and communicating the value of pharmacy offerings. It is clear within the profession that pharmacists use their scope of knowledge and technical skills to address medication-related needs of individuals and populations. However, confusion still remains in the professional and public literature about what a pharmacist precisely produces for society. Is it a drug, service, program, solution, or something else? As the profession evolves from one that focuses on dispensing drugs to a profession that seeks to achieve positive patient health outcomes, pharmacists need to better conceptualize and articulate what they produce. This narrative review explores ideas from the marketing, business strategy, and entrepreneurship literature to discuss diverse perspectives on the pharmacist’s product. The four perspectives are the product as (1) a tangible product, (2) an intangible service, (3) a “smart, connected” good or service, and (4) a solution to a customer problem in whatever form provided. Based upon these perspectives, the pharmacist’s product can be any combination of tangible or intangible, face-to-face or virtual offering produced by pharmacists that seeks to satisfy medication-related needs and wants of pharmacy patients and customers. Ideas discussed in this review include the total product concept, classification schemes from the services marketing literature, the theory of service-dominant logic, the concepts of “smart, connected” products and industrialized intimacy, and the jobs-to-be-done framework. These various perspectives offer lessons for pharmacists on how to innovate when serving patients and customers and to communicate the pharmacist’s value proposition to the people they serve.</p> David A. Holdford Copyright (c) 2021 The Authors 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 19 2 2430 2430 10.18549/PharmPract.2021.2.2430