Pharmacy Practice 2019-10-09T16:48:11+01:00 Fernando Fernandez-Llimos Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is a free full-text peer-reviewed journal with a scope on pharmacy practice. <strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is published quarterly. <strong>Pharmacy Practice <span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">does not charge any publication fee to the author</span><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #ff0000; text-decoration: underline;">s</span></span></strong>.</p> A transition from the BPharm to the PharmD degree in five selected countries 2019-08-22T19:57:30+01:00 Teeraporn Supapaan Bee Y. Low Payom Wongpoowarak Summana Moolasarn Claire Anderson <p>This review focuses on the studies and opinions around issues of transition from the BPharm to the PharmD degree in the U.S., Japan, South Korea, Pakistan and Thailand.</p> <p>The transition to the clinically orientated PharmD degree in many countries was seen to be a means of developing the profession. However, some countries have both clinically-oriented and pharmaceutical sciences-oriented PharmD programme that are designed to meet the needs of their countries. Each country created a different process to handle the transition to an all-PharmD programme, but mostly had the process of school accreditation mandated by the regulatory bodies. The main barrier to the transition in most of the countries was the issue of educational quality. A set of indicators is needed to measure and monitor the impact/outcome of the PharmD degree.</p> <p>Each country has different needs due to the different contexts of health care systems and the scope of pharmacy practice. In order to increase their chances of benefiting from the new programme, academic leaders should critically assess their countries’ needs before deciding to adopt a PharmD programme.</p> 2019-08-21T16:06:13+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Role of community pharmacists in skin cancer screening: A descriptive study of skin cancer risk factors prevalence and photoprotection habits in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain 2019-08-29T15:03:20+01:00 Joan F. Mir Maria Estrada-Campmany Anna Heredia Cristina Rodríguez-Caba Marta Alcalde Natalia Espinosa Jilliana Monnier Javiera Pérez-Anker Oriol Yélamos Susana Puig Núria Bosch Josep Malvehy <p><strong>Background</strong>: Skin cancer incidence is increasing alarmingly, despite current efforts trying to improve its early detection. Community pharmacists have proven success in implementing screening protocols for a number of diseases because of their skills and easy access.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To evaluate the prevalence of skin cancer risk factors and the photoprotection habits with a questionnaire in community pharmacy users.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A research group consisting of pharmacists and dermatologists conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study to assess photoprotection habits and skin cancer risk factors by using a validated questionnaire in 218 community pharmacies in Barcelona from May 23<sup>rd</sup> to June 13<sup>th</sup> 2016. All participants received health education on photoprotection and skin cancer prevention. Patients with ≥1 skin cancer risk factor were referred to their physician, as they needed further screening of skin cancer.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 5,530 participants were evaluated. Of those, only 20.2% participants had received a total body skin examination for skin cancer screening in the past by a physician and 57.1% reported using a SPF 50+ sunscreen. 53.9% participants presented ≥1 skin cancer risk factor: 11.8% participants reported having skin cancer familial history and 6.2% reported skin cancer personal history; pharmacists found ≥10 melanocytic nevi in 43.8% participants and chronically sun-damaged skin in 21.4%. Lesions suspicious for melanoma were reported in 10.9% of the participants and urgent dermatological evaluation was recommended.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Pharmacists can detect people with skin cancer risk factors amongst their users. This intervention can be considered in multidisciplinary strategies of skin cancer screening.</p> 2019-08-29T15:01:59+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors The Syrian refugee crisis in Jordan: a cross sectional pharmacist-led study assessing post-traumatic stress disorder 2019-08-20T18:53:52+01:00 Iman A. Basheti Shahnaz M. Ayasrah Mariam M. Basheti Judeh Mahfuz Betty Chaar <p><strong>Background</strong>: The United Nations has declared the Syrian crisis as the worst humanitarian crisis of the twenty-first century. Pharmacists play a vital role in humanitarian aid and in delivering health advices for refugees. Many Syrian refugees are in need of psychosocial assessments.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assessed by pharmacists among Syrian civilian refugees residing in Amman, Jordan.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study involving Syrian civilian refugees living in Amman, Jordan, was conducted using the published and validated Arabic version of the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ). Pharmacists recruited civilian Syrian refugees and completed the HTQ. The questionnaire included 45 questions, with the first 16 questions (HTQ-16) intended to assess the trauma symptoms felt by refugees. Assessments were done by the pharmacists and refugees were categorized to suffer PTSD if their mean item score for the HTQ-16 scale was &gt; 2.5.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Study participants (n=186; mean age 31.5 years; 51.3% males) had a HTQ-16 mean score of 2.35 (SD=0.53), with a range of 1.19 - 3.63. Over a third of participants (38.7%) were categorized as having PTSD. Males reported significantly worse PTSD symptoms (mean=2.42, SD=0.50) compared to females (mean=2.26, SD=0.57). Correlation between the mean item score for the HTQ-16 and characteristics of the study participants showed higher mean item score correlated with being a male, older in age, a smoker, and if trauma was experienced.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Many Syrian civilian refugees living in Jordan suffer from PTSD. Male participants were found to be more affected by the severity of the disorder. Pharmacists are suitably situated to identify civilian Syrian refugees suffering from PTSD in dire need of help, paving the way for much needed healthcare resources to be delivered to this particular group of refugees.</p> 2019-08-20T17:26:44+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Agreement between units of measure for paediatric antibiotic utilisation surveillance using hospital pharmacy supply data 2019-09-11T23:43:22+01:00 Mona Mostaghim Tom Snelling Beata Bajorek <p><strong>Background</strong>: Drug utilisation studies from paediatric hospitals that do not have access to patient level data on medication use are limited by a lack of standardised units of measures that reflect the varying daily dosage requirements among patients. The World Health Organization’s defined daily dose is frequently used in adult hospitals for benchmarking and longitudinal analysis but is not endorsed for use in paediatric populations.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Explore agreement between standard adult-based defined daily doses (DDD) and paediatric estimates of daily injectable antibiotic use in a Paediatric Intensive Care Unit that does not have access to individual patient-level data.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Hospital pharmacy antibiotic use reports and age-specific occupied bed-day data from 1 January 2010 to 31 May 2016 were extracted. Paediatric reference dosages and frequencies for antibiotics were defined and applied to three paediatric units of measure. Measures were applied to extracted data, agreement between antibiotic use measured in the adult DDD and each of the paediatric measures was assessed visually via Bland-Altman plots and linear regression for each antibiotic.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Thirty one different antibiotics were used throughout the study period. Despite varying daily dosages in grams, the daily use of vials was unchanged from birth to 18 years for thirteen antibiotics. Agreement between DDD and vial-based measures was closer than the total recommended daily dose that did not account for wastage during preparation and administration. Vial-based measures were unaffected by vial size changes due to drug shortage.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Agreement between the DDD and vial-based measures of use supports the use of DDD for select antibiotics that may be targeted by antimicrobial stewardship programs. Vial based measures should be further explored in hospitals with single vial policies; detailed understanding of hospital practice is needed before inter-hospital comparisons are made.</p> 2019-09-11T23:43:22+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Potentially inappropriate medications among the elderly in primary care in Thailand from three different sets of criteria 2019-08-24T11:53:38+01:00 Pasitpon Vatcharavongvan Viwat Puttawanchai <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The primary objective was to examine potentially inappropriate medications (or PIMs) in the elderly using three different criteria: Beers 2015, STOPP version 2, and Winit-Watjana (for Thai elderly patients). The secondary objective was to examine PIM-related factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. Eligible patients were aged ≥65 years in a primary care unit. Demographic data, medical prescriptions in the past year, clinical data and diagnoses were collected from electronic medical records. PIMs, including the use of ≥2 medications, were identified using the three criteria. Descriptive and analytical statistics were conducted. The type I error was 0.05. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between PIMs and other factors.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 400 patients were recruited, and 1,640 prescriptions were reviewed. The median age was 70.5 years, and the median numbers of diseases, medications, and prescriptions were 3 (interquartile range or IQR=2), 11 (IQR=20), and 3 (IQR=4), respectively. Of all the patients, 213 (53.3%) showed a use of ≥5 medications, and 301 (75.3%) were prescribed PIMs. Of the 1,640 prescriptions, 60% had at least one PIM. The Winit-Watjana criteria, Beers 2015 criteria and STOPP version 2 identified 66.8%, 59.0% and 40.3% of the patients receiving PIMs, respectively. Approximately 16% of the patients showed at least one potential drug-drug interaction. The use of duplicate drug classes accounted for the highest proportion of potential drug-drug interactions (41.3%). Polypharmacy (odds ratio or OR 3.93, 95% confidence interval or 95%CI 2.17-71.2) and the presence of ≥4 diseases (OR 2.78, 95%CI 1.39-5.56) were associated with PIMs.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: PIMs are common among the elderly patients in primary care in Thailand. Prescriptions of the elderly with polypharmacy or multiple concurrent diagnoses should be reviewed for PIMs because they have a high chance of receiving PIMs.</p> 2019-08-24T11:53:38+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Evaluation of vitamin B12 monitoring in patients on metformin in urban ambulatory care settings 2019-09-13T14:13:42+01:00 Stacy L. Longo Jessica M. Ryan Kelsey B. Sheehan Debra J. Reid Michael P. Conley Carla J. Bouwmeester <p><strong>Background</strong>: Previous studies linked metformin use to vitamin B12 deficiency and demonstrated that the prevalence of vitamin B12 monitoring remains low.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aimed to assess the occurrence of monitoring vitamin B12 levels in a diverse population.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This was a retrospective chart review of adult patients with type 2 diabetes on metformin doses ≥ 1000 mg for ≥ 6 months at five Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) and one Program of All-Inclusive Care for the Elderly (PACE). Charts were reviewed for occurrence of monitoring vitamin B12 levels in the past 5 years. Data collected included patient demographics, laboratory data, other potential vitamin B12 level lowering agents, active prescription for vitamin B12 supplementation, concomitant diabetes medications and metformin total daily dose.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Of the 322 patients included, 25% had a vitamin B12 level measured in the previous five years. Among the patients with a vitamin B12 level, 87.7% were within the normal range (&gt;350 pg/mL), 11.1% were low (200-300 pg/mL), and only one patient (1.2%) was deficient (&lt;200 pg/mL). These patients were older (69.2 vs. 56.4, p&lt;0.001); more likely to be white (56.8% vs. 37.8%, p=0.04); and more likely to use proton pump inhibitors (34.6% vs. 20.7%, p=0.02) and vitamin B12 supplementation (27.2% vs. 4.6%, p&lt;0.001). Vitamin B12 monitoring differed between the FQHC (15.2%) and PACE (97.4%) sites (p&lt;0.001). Each greater year of age was associated with a 5% increased odds of vitamin B12 monitoring (aOR: 1.05; 95%CI: 1.02-1.08).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The majority of patients seen at the FQHC sites did not have vitamin B12 levels monitored, however, most of the patients who were monitored had normal vitamin B12 levels, which may warrant extending the monitoring time. This finding may also support monitoring patients who have additional risk factors for vitamin B12 deficiency such as concurrent medication use with other vitamin B12 lowering agents or clinical symptoms of deficiency such as peripheral neuropathy. Future studies are needed to determine appropriate frequency of monitoring.</p> 2019-09-13T14:13:42+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Effectiveness of a pharmacist-led quality improvement program to reduce medication errors during hospital discharge 2019-08-21T18:02:11+01:00 Doris George Nirmala D. Supramaniam Siti Q. Abd Hamid Mohamed A. Hassali Wei-Yin Lim Amar-Singh HSS <p><strong>Background</strong>: Patients requiring medications during discharge are at risk of discharge medication errors that potentially cause readmission due to medication-related events.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this study was to develop interventions to reduce percentage of patients with one or more medication errors during discharge.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A pharmacist-led quality improvement (QI) program over 6 months was conducted in medical wards at a tertiary public hospital. Percentage of patients discharge with one or more medication errors was reviewed in the pre-intervention and four main improvements were developed: increase the ratio of pharmacist to patient, prioritize discharge prescription order within office hours, complete discharge medication reconciliation by ward pharmacist, set up a Centralized Discharge Medication Pre-packing Unit. Percentage of patients with one or more medication errors in both pre- and post-intervention phase were monitored using process control chart.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: With the implementation of the QI program, the percentage of patients with one or more medication errors during discharge that were corrected by pharmacists significantly increased from 77.6% to 95.9% (p&lt;0.001). Percentage of patients with one or more clinically significant error was similar in both pre and post-QI with an average of 24.8%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Increasing ratio of pharmacist to patient to complete discharge medication reconciliation during discharge significantly recorded a reduction in the percentage of patients with one or more medication errors.</p> 2019-08-21T18:01:54+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Resident physicians’ perceptions of ambulatory care pharmacy 2019-08-24T10:56:55+01:00 Ashley Meredith Darin Ramsey Andrew Schmelz Rachel Berglund <p><strong>Background</strong>: Physicians' acceptance of clinical pharmacy services is dependent on exposure to those services, with use increasing as resident physicians progress through their training. Resident physicians train within environments that have a multidisciplinary teaching and clinical care approach, working closely with other healthcare professionals. Ambulatory care pharmacists are increasingly working with resident physicians in clinic settings as part of the multidisciplinary team, and identification of resident physicians’ perceptions may influence future collaboration.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective of this research is to evaluate the perception of ambulatory care clinical pharmacy services from the perspective of resident physicians.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>:&nbsp; A statewide network of ambulatory care pharmacists was identified and received an electronic questionnaire. Pharmacists working within clinics that serve as training sites for resident physicians then completed and distributed questionnaires to the resident physicians within their clinical site. Items related to demographics and perception of involvement and interactions with clinical pharmacists.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Forty-five resident physicians responded from four unique clinical sites (response rate = 42%).&nbsp; They agreed or strongly agreed that pharmacists help patients obtain their therapeutic goals (97.8%), are able to educate patients effectively (95.6%), provide high quality care (97.8%), and do a good job helping co-manage patients (91.1%). Previous exposure to pharmacists was limited primarily to the drugstore (48.9%) and hospital (51.1%) settings. Resident physicians in the third year of training and those reporting a friend was a pharmacist, were more likely to have a positive perception of the pharmacist’s role as a resident educator (p=0.048 and p=0.044, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Resident physicians with a longer duration of exposure and personal friendship with a pharmacist are more likely to express positive perceptions. Areas for further enhancements in this interprofessional relationship related to perceptions about pharmacist autonomy and patient relationships were identified.</p> 2019-08-24T10:56:55+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Assessment of pharmacists’ knowledge, attitude and practice in chain community pharmacies towards their current function and performance in Indonesia 2019-08-24T11:38:28+01:00 Umi Athiyah Catur D. Setiawan Gesnita Nugraheni Elida Zairina Wahyu Utami Andi Hermansyah <p><strong>Background</strong>: The introduction of universal healthcare coverage in 2014 has affected the practice of community pharmacies in Indonesia. Studies regarding the practice of pharmacist in the chain community pharmacy setting in Indonesia are very limited. The chain community pharmacies in Indonesia are operated and controlled by the same management. The chain community pharmacies usually show better services compared to independent community pharmacies in Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of pharmacist working in chain community pharmacy towards their current function and performance in delivering pharmacy services</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study using questionnaires was conducted between January and March 2017 in KF, one of the largest chain community pharmacies in Indonesia. The total sampling method was used in the recruitment process. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-Test and one-way ANOVA. The KAP scores were assessed and categorized as “poor”, “moderate” and “good” based on the standardized scoring system.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 949 KF’s pharmacists (100% response rate) were participated in the study. The majority of pharmacists showed a good score in terms of knowledge and attitude, which is in contrast to practice as majority only obtained a moderate score. Working experience, age and the availability of standard operating procedures (SOP) for both dispensing and self-medication services were found to be statistically significant (p&lt;0.005) aspects to KAP of pharmacists in delivering pharmacy services.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study identified several important aspects that could affect the KAP of pharmacists working in chain community pharmacies in Indonesia. Specific policies should be conceived to improve the competencies of pharmacist and to ensure the compliance with the SOP and standardization system within pharmacy sector.</p> 2019-08-24T11:38:27+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Evaluation of aminoglycosides utilization in intensive care units of a teaching hospital in southern Iran 2019-10-09T16:48:11+01:00 Afsaneh Vazin Mahtabalsadat Mirjalili Sarah Asadi <p><strong>Background</strong>: Inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents is one of the most important factors in inducing resistance and prolonged hospitalization as well as increase in patient mortality rate.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to evaluate aminoglycosides (AGs) usage pattern at intensive care units (ICUs) of Nemazee hospital Shiraz, Iran.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this cross-sectional study, the usage pattern of AGs was evaluated during 32 months. Guidelines for AGs usage were approved by the drug and therapeutic committee of the hospital, and criteria were developed to assess 11 parameters involving AGs therapy, such as proper indication for the use of the drug, dosage and duration of therapy. Clinical parameters, such as microbial culture and sensitivity, serum creatinine (SCr) and creatinine clearance, and white blood cell count were evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Ninety-five patients were recruited, 50 male and 45 females. In most patients (64%) the origin of infection was hospital and only in 36% of them, community was the source. Ventilator associated pneumonia (27%), central nervous system (25%) and urinary tract infection (10%) were the most important indications for AGs prescription. Scores of AGs usage at Nemazee hospital was calculated as 5.9 out of 11, which meant that in only 54% of cases AGs prescription was based on guideline proposed by the Department of Clinical Pharmacy of Nemazee Hospital.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Non-adherence to the guidelines occurred frequently in the ICUs of Nemazee hospital. Prescription of loading dose, and AGs level measurement were not done and evaluating microbiological data was often neglected. Incorporating pharmacists in the health care team and holding training programs for physicians and nurses with the goal of raising awareness about the proposed guideline.</p> 2019-09-17T19:59:30+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors A descriptive study of antithrombotic medication patterns in adult patients with recent venous thromboembolism 2019-08-22T20:10:13+01:00 Fady Allahwerdy Steven Pan Michael Feehan Aubrey E. Jones Mark A. Munger Daniel M. Witt <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: The objective of this study is to describe the most common self-reported antithrombotic therapy utilization patterns in a national cohort of patients with recent venous thromboembolism (VTE).</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Extant data from a national online survey administered to 907 patients 18 years of age or older with VTE in the last two years were analyzed. Patients’ self-reported antithrombotic usage patterns used during three phases of treatment for the most recent VTE episode were summarized using descriptive statistics.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The following overall antithrombotic usage patterns were identified: warfarin (38.7%), direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) (26.1%), switching between warfarin and DOACs (13.3%), aspirin only (8.7%), switching between different DOACs (4.5%), injectable anticoagulants only (3.9%), and no treatment (4.7%). Extended antithrombotic therapy beyond 90 days was reported by 65.7% of patients. Aspirin coadministration with anticoagulant therapy occurred for 33.7%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: In this national sample of recent VTE sufferers warfarin therapy remains the most used anticoagulant followed closely by DOAC therapy. Switching between warfarin and DOACs and between different DOACs was common which could indicate adverse events or affordability issues. Aspirin coadministration with anticoagulant therapy was present in 1 of 3 patients and is a potential medication safety intervention for anticoagulation providers.</p> 2019-08-22T20:06:49+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Culture of antibiotic use in Kosovo - an interview study with patients and health professionals 2019-08-22T10:27:33+01:00 Arianit Jakupi Denis Raka Susanne Kaae Sofia K. Sporrong <p><strong>Background</strong>: Kosovo is a new state and has a high consumption of antibiotics in relation to other European countries. Existing quantitative studies have shown that practices exist that is not optimal when it comes to antibiotic use in Kosovo, this includes citizens’ use of antibiotics, pharmacy practices of selling antibiotics without prescriptions and physicians’ prescribing behaviours. To address these problems, there is a need for a deeper understanding of why antibiotics are handled in a suboptimal way.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objective was to explore antibiotic users’, community pharmacists’ and prescribers’ attitudes towards, experiences of, and&nbsp; knowledge about antibiotics in Kosovo.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with patients who recently received an antibiotic prescription for an upper respiratory tract infection (URTI), patients who recently received antibiotics for a URTI without a prescription, community pharmacists, and physicians. Interviews were recorded, translated into English, and analysed using deductive content analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In total, 16 interviews were conducted in the period from 2015-2016. Five themes were identified: Obtaining antibiotics, Choice of antibiotics, Patient information, Patients’ knowledge and views on when to use antibiotics, and Professionals’ knowledge and attitudes towards antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotics were sometimes obtained without a prescription, also by patients who currently had received one. The specific antibiotic could be chosen by a physician, a pharmacist or the patient him/herself. Former experience was one reason given by patients for their choice. Patients’ knowledge on antibiotics was mixed, however health professionals were knowledgeable about e.g. antimicrobial resistance.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: There is currently a culture of antibiotic use in Kosovo, including attitudes and behaviours, and hence also experiences, which is possibly underlying the high consumption of antibiotics in the country. The culture is reproduced by patients, pharmacists and physicians. There is, however, an awareness of the current problematic situation among practitioners and policy makers; and as Kosovo is a new country, opportunities to effectively tackle antimicrobial resistance exist.</p> 2019-08-22T10:27:33+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Impact of an HIV-trained clinical pharmacist intervention on error rates of antiretroviral and opportunistic infection medications in the inpatient setting 2019-08-20T14:56:39+01:00 Thomas D. Chiampas Mark J. Biagi Melissa E. Badowski <p><strong>Background</strong>: Based on a retrospective study performed at our institution, 38% of inpatients living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were found to have a medication error involving their anti-retroviral (ARV) and/or opportunistic infection (OI) prophylaxis medications.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To determine the impact of a dedicated HIV-trained clinical pharmacist on the ARV and OI prophylaxis medication error rates at our institution.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A prospective quality improvement project was conducted over a six month period to assess the impact of a dedicated HIV-trained clinical pharmacist on the ARV and OI prophylaxis medication error rates. IRB approval received.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: There were 144 patients included in this analysis, who experienced a combined 76 medication errors. Compared to historical control study conducted at our institution, the percent of patients who experienced a medication error remained stable (38% vs. 39%, respectively) and the error rate per patient was similar (1.44 vs. 1.36, p=NS). The percent of medication errors that were corrected prior to discharge increased from 24% to 70% and the median time to error correction decreased from 42 hours to 11.5 hours (p&lt;0.0001).&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Errors relating to ARV or OI prophylaxis medications remain frequent in inpatient people living with HIV/AIDS. After multiple interventions were implemented, ARV and OI prophylaxis medication errors were corrected faster and with greater frequency prior to discharge, however, similar rates of errors for patients existed. Dedicated HIV clinicians with adequate training and credentialing are necessary to manage this specialized disease state and to reduce the overall number of medication errors associated with HIV/AIDS.</p> 2019-08-20T14:55:58+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Mandatory continuing education for pharmacists in a developing country: assessment of a three-year cycle 2019-08-24T18:05:01+01:00 Hala Sacre Samah Tawil Souheil Hallit Georges Sili Pascale Salameh <p><strong>Background</strong>: In Lebanon, mandatory continuing education (CE) for pharmacists was implemented in January 2014.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objectives of this study are to assess 1) the overall adherence to the mandatory CE program, 2) pharmacists’ preferences related to CE, and 3) barriers to adherence to CE.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: By the end of October 2017, an evaluation of pharmacists’ participation in the mandatory CE program was conducted using electronic reports available in the Learning Management System (LMS). Descriptive results were presented as frequencies and percentages. In addition, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among pharmacists to better understand their preferences and barriers to their participation to the CE program. Finally, a focus group was organized with pharmacists who did not start their CE.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of all registered pharmacists in Lebanon, 68.30% started their CE and 25.6% already achieved their required credits. Among pharmacists enrolled in the CE system, the majority (69%) used the online courses at least once. Moreover, CE enrolment was similar among old and young pharmacists except for those newly registered. The majority of pharmacists preferred clinical and pharmacological topics, followed by preventive medicine and transferable skills. Barriers to engaging in CE were mainly work and family obligations, lack of interest, lack of time, and difficulties in commuting and technology use.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Although results of the present study are similar to those in developing countries, the resistance to change is higher. The Lebanese Pharmacists Association [Ordre des Pharmaciens du Liban] should develop strategies to motivate and enroll more pharmacists in the CE system, based on the barriers and preferences cited in the results, while continuing to offer high quality and cost-favorable CE programs to Lebanese pharmacists.</p> 2019-08-24T18:05:01+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Pharmacist intervention to enhance postoperative fluid prescribing practice in an Iraqi hospital through implementation of NICE guideline 2019-08-29T16:44:12+01:00 Sarah K. Abbood Hayder C. Assad Ali A. Al Jumaili <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the current practice of postoperative fluid prescribing and assess the effectiveness of pharmacist-led intervention in the implementation of the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) fluid therapy guideline in an Iraqi hospital.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The prospective interventional study was conducted at AL-Hilla Teaching Hospital, Babylon, Iraq between November 2017 and July 2018. The study included two phases: The pre-intervention phase with 84 patients and the post-intervention phase with 112 patients. A pharmacist provided training and educational sessions for the hospital physicians and pharmacists about the NICE guideline of fluid therapy. The researcher calculated the amount of given post-operative fluids and compared to the NICE guideline and also measured the patients’ body weight, serum Na, K and creatinine pre-and post-operatively.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The pre-intervention phase showed no correlation between the amounts of prescribed fluids and body weight which caused increases in patients’ body weight. In pre-intervention phase, 6% of patients experienced hyponatremia, 19% had hypernatremia and 7.1% had hypokalemia. In the post-intervention phase, abnormal level of electrolytes and patient weight gain decreased significantly. Additionally, the intervention led to a strong correlation between body weight and amount of prescribed fluids in addition to lowering the incidence of electrolyte disturbances. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: A high proportion of patients in the pre-intervention phase experienced fluid overload, weight gain and electrolyte disturbances when fluid therapy was not prescribed in accordance with the NICE guidelines. The pharmacist-led intervention increased the surgeon awareness of the proper use of the NICE guideline which decreased the incidence of fluid-related complications and the inconsistency of fluid prescribing. Pharmacists can play a critical role to enhance post-operative fluid prescribing and minimize fluid-induced complications.</p> 2019-08-29T16:44:12+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Impact of select risk factors on treatment outcome in adults with candidemia 2019-08-21T11:16:26+01:00 Brandon Hill Richard H. Drew Dustin Wilson <p><strong>Background</strong>: Studies examining relationships between patient-related factors and treatment outcome in patients with candidemia are limited and often based on all-cause mortality.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Our purpose was to examine the impact of concurrent renal replacement therapy (RRT) and other pre-specified factors on treatment outcome among adults with candidemia.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, single-center, case-cohort study included patients over 18 years of age admitted to Duke University Hospital between Jun 1, 2013 and Jun 1, 2017 with a blood culture positive for <em>Candida</em> spp. Treatment-, patient-, and disease-specific data were collected, and outcome (success/failure) determined 90 days after the index culture. An odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated for the following during therapy: receipt of RRT, fluconazole monotherapy regimen, intensive care unit (ICU) stay, and neutropenia.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among the 112 encounters (from 110 unique patients) included, treatment failure occurred in 8/112 (7.1%). Demographics were comparable between outcome groups. Among 12 patients receiving concomitant RRT, only 1 patient failed therapy. With regard to treatment failure, no significant differences were observed with RRT (OR, 1.21; 95%CI, 0.14 – 10.75), fluconazole monotherapy regimen (OR, 1.59; 95%CI, 0.3-8.27), ICU stay (OR, 1.43; 95%CI, 0.32-6.29), and neutropenia (0 treatment failures).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Treatment failure, receipt of concomitant RRT, and neutropenia were infrequent in patients undergoing treatment for candidemia. In our cohort, exposure to RRT, a fluconazole monotherapy regimen, ICU stay, or neutropenia during treatment did not impact treatment outcome.</p> 2019-08-21T11:16:25+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Medication dispensing, additional therapeutic recommendations, and pricing practices for acute diarrhoea by community pharmacies in Germany: a simulated patient study 2019-09-14T19:03:39+01:00 Bernhard Langer Christian Kunow <p><strong>Background</strong>: In Germany over-the-counter medications (OTC) – which since 2004 are no longer subject to binding prices – can only be purchased in pharmacies. Pharmacy owners and their staff therefore have a special responsibility when dispensing, advising on and setting the prices of medications.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to assess medication dispensing, additional therapeutic recommendations and pricing practices for acute diarrhoea in adults and to evaluate the role of the patient’s approach (symptom-based versus medication-based request) in determining the outcome of these aspects.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A cross-sectional study was conducted from 1 May to 31 July 2017 in all 21 community pharmacies in a medium-sized German city. Symptom-based and medication-based scenarios related to self-medication of acute diarrhoea were developed and used by five simulated patients (SPs) in all of the pharmacies (a total of 84 visits). Differentiating between the different test scenarios in terms of the commercial and active ingredient names and also the prices of the medications dispensed, the SPs recorded on collection forms whether the scenario involved generic products or original preparations as well as whether recommendations were made during the test purchases regarding an additional intake of fluids.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: In each of the 84 test purchases one preparation was dispensed. However, a preparation for oral rehydration was not sold in a single test purchase. On the other hand, in 74/84 (88%) of test purchases, medications with the active ingredient loperamide were dispensed. In only 35/84 (42%) of test purchases, the patient was also recommended to ensure an ‘adequate intake of fluids’ in addition to being dispensed a medication. In symptom-based scenarios significantly more expensive medications were dispensed compared to the medication-based scenarios (Wilcoxon signed rank test: z = -4.784, p &lt; 0.001, r = 0.738). Also within the different scenarios there were enormous price differences identified – for example, in the medication-based scenarios, even for comparable loperamide generics the cheapest preparation cost EUR 1.99 and the most expensive preparation cost EUR 4.53.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Oral rehydration was not dispensed and only occasionally was an adequate intake of fluids recommended. There were also enormous price differences both between and within the scenarios investigated.</p> 2019-09-14T19:03:39+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Evaluation of an interprofessional naloxone didactic and skills session with medical residents and physician assistant learners 2019-09-12T23:41:10+01:00 Daniel Hargraves Christopher C. White Marcia R. Mauger Aruna Puthota Harini Pallerla Patricia Wigle Sarah L. Brubaker Jeffrey D. Schlaudecker <p><strong>Background</strong>: The CDC has reported 399,230 opioid-related deaths from 1999-2017. In 2018, the US surgeon general issued a public health advisory, advising all Americans to carry naloxone. Studies show that enhanced naloxone access directly reduces death from opioid overdose. Despite this, health care professional learners report low knowledge and confidence surrounding naloxone. Therefore, it becomes critical that medical education programs incorporate didactic and experiential sessions improving knowledge, skills and attitudes regarding harm reduction through naloxone.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: 1. Describe the components and evaluation of a replicable and adaptable naloxone didactic and skills session model for medical providers; 2. Report the results of the evaluation from a pilot session with family medicine residents and physician assistant students; and 3. Share the session toolkit, including evaluation surveys and list of materials used.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In July 2017, a literature search was completed for naloxone skill training examining best practices on instruction and evaluation. A training session for family medicine residents and physician assistant learners was designed and led by University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and College of Pharmacy faculty. The same faculty designed a pre and post session evaluation form through internal review on elements targeting naloxone knowledge, attitude, and self-efficacy.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The training session included one hour for a didactic and one hour for small group live skills demonstration in four methods of naloxone administration (syringe and ampule, nasal atomizer, branded nasal spray and auto injector). Forty-eight participants showed statistically significant (p&lt;0.05) improvement in knowledge (67.5% to 95.9%), attitudes (71.2% to 91.2%), and self-efficacy (62.1% to 97.8%) from pre to post assessment. Forty-four of 48 participants agreed that the pace of the training was appropriate and that the information will be of use in their respective primary care practices. Supply costs for the session were USD 1,200, with the majority being reusable on subsequent trainings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our study of a naloxone didactic and skills session for primary care trainees demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge, self-efficacy, and attitudes. It provides an adaptable and efficient model for delivery of knowledge and skills in naloxone administration training. The pilot data suggest that the training was efficacious.</p> 2019-09-12T23:39:42+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Biosimilars and implications for pharmacy practice: Ready or not, here they come! 2019-08-29T15:17:26+01:00 Joshua P. Crawford Andrea L. Hobbs 2019-08-29T09:43:28+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors Pharmacists and Medicare’s Annual Wellness Visit: implications for pharmacy education and interprofessional primary care 2019-09-12T23:55:09+01:00 Kristin Zimmerman Daniel Bluestein 2019-09-12T23:52:36+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors