https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/issue/feed Pharmacy Practice 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Fernando Fernandez-Llimos journal@pharmacypractice.org Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is a free full-text peer-reviewed journal with a scope on pharmacy practice. <strong>Pharmacy Practice</strong> is published quarterly. <strong>Pharmacy Practice <span style="text-decoration: underline; color: #ff0000;">does not charge and will never charge any publication fee or article processing charge (APC) to the author</span><span style="text-decoration: underline;"><span style="color: #ff0000; text-decoration: underline;">s</span></span></strong>.</p> https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1804 How many manuscripts should I peer review per year? 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Fernando Fernandez-Llimos f-llimos@ff.ul.pt Teresa M. Salgado tmsalgado@vcu.edu Fernanda S. Tonin fer_stumpf_tonin@hotmail.com <p>Peer review provides the foundation for the scholarly publishing system. The conventional peer review system consists of using authors of articles as reviewers for other colleagues’ manuscripts in a collaborative-basis system. However, authors complain about a theoretical overwhelming number of invitations to peer review.&nbsp; It seems that authors feel that they are invited to review many more manuscripts than they should when taking into account their participation in the scholarly publishing system. The high number of scientific journals and the existence of predatory journals were reported as potential causes of this excessive number of reviews required. In this editorial, we demonstrate that the number of reviewers required to publish a given number of articles depends exclusively on the journals’ rejection rate and the number of reviewers intended per manuscript. Several initiatives to overcome the peer review crises are suggested.</p> 2020-01-15T00:06:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1878 An international series on the integration of community pharmacy in primary health care 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Shalom I. Benrimoj shalom.benrimoj@gmail.com Fernando Fernandez-Llimos fllimos@ff.up.pt <p>The interrelationship between governmental policies and objectives in primary health care and community pharmacy/pharmacists’ strategic plans are of the outmost importance, having significant professional, economic and practical consequences for the future of the pharmacy profession, research, education and health care. Sharing information of the potential and real impact on current and future practice of community pharmacy/pharmacists, be it in product or service, in primary care would benefit many stakeholders. In order to create and focus professional and scientific debate the journal has commissioned key experts to contribute a series of country case studies. The aim of the series is to promulgate and disseminate country-based information on primary health care and community pharmacy/pharmacist.&nbsp;</p> 2020-03-13T10:13:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1660 Community pharmacists’ recommendations for natural products for stress in Melbourne, Australia: a simulated patient study 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Kevin Clayton kclayto4@myune.edu.au Yoni Luxford yluxford@une.edu.au Joshua Colaci joshua.colaci@gmail.com Meral Hasan meralh9@hotmail.com Rebecca Miltiadou bec.miltiadou@gmail.com Daria Novikova dashanovikova394@gmail.com Dean Vlahopoulos dean.vlahop@gmail.com Ieva Stupans ieva.stupans@rmit.edu.au <p><strong>Background</strong>: Community pharmacists are often the first health professional approached to provide treatment for health issues, including the important mental health challenge, stress. Over-the-counter products for stress almost always are complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) and in Australia no protocol exists for their recommendation and sale in community pharmacies.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: To assess the quality and relevance of community pharmacists’ information gathering (questioning), counselling and product selection when interacting with customers requesting a CAM product for stress and consequently determine whether Australian pharmacy practice indicates the need for guidelines similar to those provided for ‘pharmacy only’ (S2) and ‘pharmacist only’ (S3) medicines.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A covert simulated patient was used to investigate the response of pharmacists to a request for a natural product for stress. The SPs documented the details of the pharmacist-simulated patient interaction immediately on leaving the pharmacy and then re-entered the pharmacy to debrief the pharmacist. The quality of the interaction was scored as a Total CARE (check, assess, respond, explain) Score, based on anticipated questions and counselling advice. The appropriateness of the product was scored as a Product Efficacy Score, based on evidence-based literature.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Data from 100 pharmacies was provided. Information gathering illustrated by the questioning components Check and Assess (C and A) of the total CARE score by pharmacists was poor. The number of questions asked ranged from zero (13 pharmacists) to 7 (four pharmacists), the average being 3.1 (SD 1.9). Provision of advice was generally better (a description of the suggested product was offered by 87 pharmacists) but was lacking in other areas (duration of use and side effects were explained by only 41 and 16 pharmacists respectively). The most common product suggested was B-group vitamins (57 pharmacists) followed by a proprietary flower essence product (19 pharmacists). A two-step cluster analysis revealed two sub-groups of pharmacists: one cluster (74 pharmacists) with a high Total CARE score provided an appropriate product. The other cluster (20 pharmacists) had a low total CARE score and provided an inappropriate product.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: The pharmacy visits revealed major shortcomings in questioning, counselling and product recommendation. There is a need to develop guidelines for pharmacists to make evidence-based decisions in recommending complementary and alternative medicine.</p> 2020-03-11T12:54:33+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1682 Differences between pharmacists’ perception of counseling and practice in the era of prescription drug misuse 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 J. Douglas Thornton jdthornt@central.uh.edu Precious Anyanwu paanyanw@central.uh.edu Vaishnavi Tata vtata@central.uh.edu Tamara Al Rawwad talrawwa@central.uh.edu Marc L. Fleming Marc.Fleming@unthsc.edu <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study was conducted to assess pharmacists’ practices when counseling patients on their prescription medications, and their preferences for training.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Five focus group discussions of community pharmacists (n=45, with seven to eleven participants in each group) were conducted in a major metropolitan city in the southern United States. Participants were recruited via email using a list of community pharmacists provided by the Texas State Board of Pharmacy.&nbsp; All focus group discussions were structured using a moderator guide consisting of both discrete and open-ended questions. Qualitative analysis software was used to analyze the data with a thematic analysis approach.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The participants in this study had a high self-efficacy regarding their ability to counsel on both new and opioid prescriptions. Many pharmacists experienced the same barriers to counseling and agreed on the components of counseling. However, the themes that emerged showed that the participants exhibited only a partial understanding of the components of counseling. The themes that emerged in the thematic analysis were perceived confidence and discordant counseling practices, inadequate infrastructure, lack of comprehensive counseling, inconsistent use of the Prescription Drug Monitoring Program (PDMP), and pharmacists’ desired training/assistance.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Community pharmacists are in a unique position to help combat the opioid crisis; however, there has been very little research on the pharmacist-patient interaction in this context. With policy changes, such as the PDMP mandate, going into effect across the country, it is important to capitalize on the potential community pharmacists have in ameliorating the opioid crisis in the United States.</p> 2020-02-24T21:43:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1686 Evaluation of discharge instructions among hospitalized Lebanese patients 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Mirella Fares mirellafares@hotmail.com Dalia Khachman dalia.khachman@outlook.com Pascale Salameh pascalesalameh1@hotmail.com Nathalie Lahoud Nathalie.lahoud@hotmail.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Hospital readmissions are considered as the primary indicator of insufficient quality of care and are responsible of increasing annual medical costs by billions of dollars. Different factors tend to reduce readmissions, particularly instructions at discharge.</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: Our study objective was to evaluate discharge instructions given to hospitalized Lebanese patients and associated factors.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Two hundred patients, aged between 21 and 79 years and admitted to the emergency department, were recruited from a Lebanese university hospital. Discharge instructions were evaluated by a face-to-face interview to fill a questionnaire with the patients immediately after their final contact with the physician or nurse in charge. We mainly focused on medications instructions and created two scores related to “instructions given” and “instructions appropriate” to later conduct bivariate analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: We found that discharge instructions were not completely given to all our study population. The degree of appropriateness fluctuated between 25% and 100%. The instructor in charge of giving discharge instructions had its significant influence on medication instructions given (p=0.014). In addition, the instructor and his experience influenced the degree of “appropriate instructions”. In fact, our study showed that despite being capable of giving good medication advice, nurses’ instructions were significantly less effective in comparison with physicians, fellows and residents. However, nurses gave 52% of the instructions, which questions the quality of those instructions.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: In conclusion, our observational study showed that in a Lebanese university hospital, patients’ understanding of discharge instructions is poor. Careful attention should be drawn to other hospitals as well and interventions should be considered to improve instructions quality and limit later complications and readmissions. The intervention of clinical pharmacists and their medication-related advice might be crucial in order to improve instructions’ quality.</p> 2020-02-28T18:13:27+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1696 A naturalistic observation study of medication counseling practices at retail chain pharmacies 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Soham D. Yande sdyande@central.uh.edu Prajakta P. Masurkar ppmasurk@central.uh.edu Suma Gopinathan sgopinat@central.uh.edu Sujit Sansgiry sansgiry@central.uh.edu <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study evaluated medication counseling procedures and trends at retail pharmacies in the Houston metropolitan area through a naturalistic observational study.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A blinded cross-sectional observational study was conducted at retail pharmacies in the Houston metropolitan area. Data were collected by trained observers utilizing an observational log, to record various parameters that could have an impact on the duration of patient-pharmacist interaction in a naturalistic pharmacy practice setting. Additionally, indicators of counseling such as utilization of the counseling window and performance of show-and-tell were recorded. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics, t-tests, Pearson correlations, ANOVAs, and multiple linear regressions.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: One hundred and sixty-five interactions between patients and pharmacy staff were recorded at 45 retail pharmacies from 7 retail pharmacy chains. The counseling window was utilized in only 3 (1.81%) out of 165 observations and the show-and-tell process was observed in just 1(0.61%) interaction during this study. Mean (SD) interaction time between patient and pharmacists [159.50 (84.50)] was not statistically different (p&gt;0.05) from the mean interaction time between patients and pharmacy technicians [139.30 (74.19)], irrespective of type of the retail chain observed. However, it was influenced by the number of patients waiting in queue. Patient wait time significantly differed by the time of the day the interaction was observed, weekends and weekdays had significantly different wait times and patient interaction times Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that, patient interaction time, pharmacy chain type, initial contact (pharmacist/technician), and time of the day, were significantly associated with patient wait time whereas patient wait time, pharmacy chain type, number of patients in queue, and number of pharmacy technician were significantly associated with interaction time.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our study found that the key indicators of counseling including the use of the counseling window and the show-and-tell process were absent, suggesting lack of adequate pharmacists counseling. Further studies are needed to evaluate the validity of this conclusion and the role of pharmacy services and its value towards medication use and safety.</p> 2020-02-24T21:04:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1705 Guessability of U.S. pharmaceutical pictograms in Iranian prospective users 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Mahnaz Saremi saremim@yahoo.com Zeinab S. Shekaripour z.shekaripour@gmail.com Soheila Khodakarim khodakarim@gmail.com <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study examined the gueassability of US pharmaceutical pictograms as well as associated demographic factors and cognitive design features among Iranian adults.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A total of 400 participants requested to guess the meaning of 53 US pharmaceutical pictograms using the open-ended method. Moreover, the participants were asked to rate the cognitive design features of each pictorial in terms of familiarity, concreteness, simplicity, meaningfulness and semantic closeness on a scale of 0-100.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: The average guessability score (standard deviation) was 66.30 (SD=24.59). Fifty-five percent of pharmaceutical pictograms understudy met the correctness criteria of 67% specified by ISO3864, while only 30% reached the criterion level of 85% set by ANSIz535.3. Low literate participants with only primary school education had substantial difficulty in the interpretation of pharmaceutical pictograms compared to those completed higher education levels. Younger adults of &lt;30 years significantly performed better in the interpretation of pharmaceutical pictograms as compared to &gt;31 years old participants. ‘Home patient care’ and ‘daily medication use’ had no effect on guessability performance. Concerning cognitive design features, meaningfulness better predict geussability score compared to the others.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Several USP pictograms fail to be correctly interpreted by Iranian users and need to be redesigned respecting cognitive design features. Interface designers are recommended to incorporate more familiar and concrete elements into their graphics in order to create more meaningful pictorial symbols and to avoid any misinterpretation by the user. Much effective medication use is expected to be achieved by means of this approach, through the improvement of the communication property of pharmaceutical pictograms.</p> 2020-03-14T15:06:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1711 Evaluation of the effect of video tutorial training on improving pharmacy students’ knowledge and skills about medication reconciliation 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Rana K. Abu Farha abufarharana@yahoo.com Mays Rashad mays_qasem@yahoo.com Eliza Hasen elyzahasan97@gmail.com Tareq Mukattash tlmukattash@just.edu.jo Amna Al-Hashar alhashar@gmail.com Iman A. Basheti dr_iman@asu.edu.jo <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: This study aimed to describe the effect of using an innovative teaching strategy using a video tutorial on enhancing students’ knowledge about medication reconciliation, and skills in identifying medication discrepancies.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>:&nbsp; This is a one group pre-post interventional study that was conducted at the School of Pharmacy at Applied Science Private University. Sixty pharmacy students were invited to attend an educational sessions that involve watching a 6-minutes video tutorial. The first two levels of the Kirkpatrick’s Model were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this training tool. Level 1 (Reaction) was assessed using a satisfaction questionnaire, while level 2 (Learning) was assessed using two criteria: 1) student acquired knowledge about medication reconciliation using a questionnaire and a knowledge score out of 13 was calculated for each student, and 2) student acquired skills in identifying medication discrepancies using a virtual case scenario. If the student was able to identify any of the four impeded discrepancies he/she rewarded 1 point for each identified discrepancy, but if they identified any incorrect discrepancy they scored a negative point.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Among the 60 students who registered to participate in the study, 49 attended the educational training (response rate 81.6%). The majority of them (n=44, 89.8%) were satisfied with the training process. Before the video tutorial, students showed an overall low knowledge score [4.08/13.0, SD 1.81], and low ability to identify discrepancies [0.72 identified discrepancies out of 4.0, SD 1.1]. Following the video tutorial, the overall knowledge score was improved (p&lt;0.001), and students were able to identify more discrepancies after watching the video (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In conclusion, video education has shown itself to be an effective method to educate pharmacy students.. This visualized method can be applied to other areas within pharmacy education. We encourage the integration of videos within the learning process to enhance students’ learning experience and to support the traditional learning provided by the teaching staff.</p> 2020-03-05T22:18:04+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1720 Community pharmacy advanced adherence services for children and young people with long-term conditions: A cross-sectional survey study 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Zahra Alsairafi zahra.alsairafi@hsc.edu.kw Julie Mason j.mason@bham.ac.uk Natasha Davies natasha.davies96@hotmail.co.uk Molly Dennis mollyrevel@hotmail.co.uk Gabrielle Pilgrim gabbypilgrim@hotmail.com Neera Goel neera_goel@live.co.uk Asma Yahyouche A.Yahyouche@bham.ac.uk Zahraa Jalal z.jalal@bham.ac.uk <p><strong>Objective</strong>: The aim of this study was to investigate the provision of community pharmacy services to children and young people with a focus on advanced services such as medicines use review. Perceptions and experiences of community pharmacists, pharmacy staff, young people and their parents or carers on the provision of such services were also explored.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Four different cross-sectional, self-administered questionnaires were distributed in parallel to pharmacists, pharmacy staff members, children and young people and parents in the United Kingdom.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: An outline of pharmacist’s current involvement with children and young people was provided by 92 pharmacists. A different group of 38 community pharmacists and 40 non-pharmacist members of pharmacy staff from a total of 46 pharmacies provided information and views on the conduct of Medicines use review with children and young people. Experiences of advanced pharmacy service provision were collected from 51 children and young people and 18 parents. Most pharmacists offered public health advice to children and young people (73/92; 79.3%) and even more (83/92; 90.2%) reported that they often interacted with children and young people with long-term condition. Despite their high levels of interaction, and a majority opinion that medicines use reviews could benefit children (35/38; 92.1%), the number of pharmacies reporting to have conducted medicines use reviews with children was low (5/41). Pharmacists perceived the main barriers to recruitment as consent (17/29; 58.6%), guideline ambiguity (14/29; 48.3%) and training (13/29; 44.8%). A considerable proportion pharmacists (12/29; 41.4%) and other personnel (14/33; 42.4%) working in community pharmacies were unaware that children were potentially eligible for medicines use reviews. Only 29.4% of the 51 children and young people participants had received advice about their long-term condition from a pharmacist and the majority (46/51; 90.2%) had not taken part in an advanced service focused on adherence.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: While general engagement with children and young people appears high from the pharmacist’s perspective, advice specific to children and young people with long-term conditions and the provision of advanced services in this group remains a challenge.</p> 2020-03-15T15:28:29+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1738 Experiential education in the pharmacy undergraduate curricula in Brazil 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Aline A. Foppa alinefoppa@yahoo.com.br Gabriella A. Martins gabriella.almeidamartins@gmail.com Ronald F. Nascimento ronaldcoletiva@gmail.com Alessandra R. Mesquita alessandra.rmesquita@gmail.com Simone A. Mendonça simoneamm@gmail.com Clarice Chemello clachemello@gmail.com <p><strong>Objective</strong>: Considering the curriculum reform process taking place in pharmacy undergraduate programs in Brazil and the importance of practical experience to students throughout their learning process in university, this study aims to provide an overview of pharmacy undergraduate programs in Brazil and their respective internships.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: An observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study. A documentary analysis of pharmacy undergraduate programs in the face-to-face modality was carried out, with data obtained from the Political Pedagogical Projects of the programs, the curricula, and course descriptions containing information on internships, all provided by the Brazilian Ministry of Education. The data collected concerned higher education institutions (HEIs), pharmacy programs and internships.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Pharmacy undergraduate programs in Brazil have a median duration of 10 semesters, requiring from students a median of 6 internships, from the 6<sup>th</sup> semester on, totalizing 826 hours. The programs lack uniformity among their internships, mainly regarding total hours and the semester in which internships start. The pharmacy internships cover, in greater number, the areas of outpatient and community pharmacy, clinical analysis, and pharmaceutical technology, respectively, being clinical analysis the area with more hours. Public and private HEIs have different internship proceedings in their curricula, hence no homogeneity among them in the different regions of Brazil.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: This study demonstrates the diversity of pharmacy programs in Brazil in the context of internships, reflecting on the training and the activity of pharmacists in recent decades. Further studies are needed to deepen the understanding of this theme.</p> 2020-03-15T15:48:39+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1744 A randomized control trial assessing the effect of a pharmaceutical care service on Syrian refugees’ quality of life and anxiety 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Majdoleen Al alawneh malawneh@qu.edu.qa Nabeel Nuaimi nabeel_nuaimi@yahoo.com Eman Abu-Gharbieh eabugharbieh@sharjah.ac.ae Iman A. Basheti dr_iman@asu.edu.jo <p><strong>Background</strong>: Syrian refugees residing in Jordan suffer from chronic illnesses, low quality of life (QoL) and anxiety. Pharmacists delivering the medication review service can have a role in improving this growing worldwide problem.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objectives</strong>: To assess the effect of the medication review service on QoL and anxiety scores for Syrian refugees living with chronic medical conditions.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: This randomized single-blinded intervention control study was conducted in Jordan. Syrian refugees were recruited and randomized into intervention and control groups. Two home visits were organized with each participant, at baseline and three months later. The medication review service was delivered to the participants and questionnaires regarding QoL and anxiety were completed by all participants. As a part of the medication review service, drug-related problems (DRPs) were identified by a clinical pharmacist for all patients, but recommendations to resolve these DRPs were delivered to intervention group refugees’ physicians only (control group patients did not receive this part of the service till the end of the study); DRPs were corrected and pharmacist-delivered counseling and education were provided as well. At follow-up, DRPs assessment, QoL and anxiety scores were assessed for refugees in the intervention and control groups.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Syrian refugees (n=106) were recruited and randomized into intervention (n=53) and control (n=53) groups with no significant difference between both groups at baseline. The number of medications and diagnosed chronic diseases per participant was 5.8 (SD 2.1) and 2.97 (SD 1.16), respectively. At follow-up, a significant decrease in the number of DRPs for refugees in the intervention group was found (from 600 to 182, p&lt;0.001), but not for the control group (number stayed at 541 DRPs, p=0.116). Although no significant difference between the groups was found with regards to QoL at follow-up (p=0.266), a significant difference was found in the anxiety scores between the groups (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The medication review service delivered by clinical pharmacists can significantly improve refugees’ DRPs and anxiety scores. As for QoL, significant improvements can be seen for all refugee patients, regardless of whether the DRPs identified were resolved or not.</p> 2020-03-15T15:06:59+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1745 Good pharmacy practice assessment among community pharmacies in Lebanon 2020-03-26T16:28:08+00:00 Danielle A. Badro dbadro@aust.edu.lb Hala Sacre halasacre@hotmail.com Souheil Hallit souheilhallit@hotmail.com Ali Amhaz ali001_1993@hotmail.com Pascale Salameh pascalesalameh1@hotmail.com <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aims to assess good pharmacy practice (GPP) aspects and compare GPP scores among community pharmacies in Lebanon, using a tool developed jointly by the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to improve and maintain standards of pharmacy practice.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: Data collection was carried out between July and October 2018 by a team of 10 licensed inspectors who work at the Lebanese Order of Pharmacists (OPL) and visited community pharmacies across Lebanon. The questionnaire was adapted to the Lebanese context and included 109 questions organized under five sections: socio-demographics, Indicator A (data management and data recording), Indicator B (services and health promotion), Indicator C (dispensing, preparation and administration of medicines), and Indicator D (storage and facilities). The value of 75% was considered as the cutoff point for adherence to indicators.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Out of 276 pharmacies visited, a total of 250 (90.58%) pharmacists participated in the study with one pharmacist being interviewed in every pharmacy. Results showed that 18.8% of pharmacists were generally adherents to GPP guidelines (scores above the 75% cutoff): 23.3% were adherent to indicator A, 21.6% to indicator B, 14.8% to indicator C and 13.2% to indicator D. Moreover, comparison of GPP scores across geographical regions revealed a higher adherence among community pharmacists working in the Beirut region compared to the North region, the South region, Mount Lebanon, and the Bekaa.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Our study shows that community pharmacists in Lebanon do not fulfill GPP criteria set by FIP/WHO, and that this poor adherence is a trend across the country’s geographical regions. Therefore, efforts should be made to raise awareness among pharmacists about the necessity to adhere to GPP guidelines and standards, and train them and support them appropriately to reach that goal. This is the first indicator-based comprehensive pilot assessment to evaluate GPP adherence in community pharmacies across Lebanon. Working on the optimization of this assessment tool is also warranted.</p> 2020-03-16T19:09:19+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1747 Exploring Canadian pharmacy students’ e-health literacy: a mixed methods study 2020-03-26T16:28:08+00:00 Jamie Y. Park jamie.park@alumni.ubc.ca Jason Min jason.min@ubc.ca <p><strong>Background</strong>: While much has been described about technology use by digital natives in general, understanding of pharmacy student’s knowledge and understanding of technology is lacking.</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study explores the current state of pharmacy students’ self-rated digital health literacy in British Columbia, Canada, and seeks to identify future opportunities for technology training in pharmacy education and in practice.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A mixed methods design using surveys and semi-structured interviews was conducted. An online, validated survey (eHEALS) was conducted among currently enrolled 2<sup>nd</sup> to 4<sup>th</sup> year pharmacy students at the University of British Columbia. An additional interview was offered to consenting participants to further explore the use of technology in daily lives, pharmacy practicums, and implications on future pharmacy curricula. Both quantitative and qualitative thematic analysis was done of all data.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 30 pharmacy students completed the eHEALS survey and 5 completed interviews. Most participants were 2<sup>nd</sup> year students (50%), were 25 years and younger (80%), and female (87%). Ranking of digital health literacy was lower than expected with participants stating they know what (87%), where (87%) and how to find (77%) health resources on the Internet. Even less students (77%) rated that they have the skills to evaluate the health resources that they find on the Internet and only 53% felt confident in using information from the Internet to make health decisions. Most students mentioned that they had limited technology related training at school and would like more training opportunities throughout their program and connect what they have learned at school to their practice.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>:&nbsp; These results expose significant and surprising gaps in student understanding of technology despite modifications seen in the entry-to-practice PharmD curriculum. Regional differences and digital health literacy of practicing pharmacists are areas that require better understanding and hold significant impact as practice evolves.</p> 2020-03-16T19:27:55+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1760 Impact of adherence to key performance indicators on mortality among patients managed for ischemic stroke 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Mustapha Mohammed macreener88@gmail.com Hadzliana Zainal hadz@usm.my Balamurugan Tangiisuran bala@usm.my Sabariah N. Harun sabariahnoor@usm.my Siti M. Ghadzi maisharah@usm.my Irene Looi irenelooi@yahoo.com Norsima N. Sidek norsima@crc.moh.gov.my Keng L. Yee leekengyee@crc.moh.gov.my Zariah A. Aziz zaraziz_ayie@yahoo.com <p><strong>Background</strong>: Stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. The cases of acute ischemic stroke are on the increase in the Asia Pacific, particularly in Malaysia. Various health organizations have recommended guidelines for managing ischemic stroke, but adherence to key performance indicators (KPI) from the guidelines and impact on patient outcomes, particularly mortality, are rarely explored.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Objective</strong>: This study aims to evaluate the impact of adherence to key performance indicators on mortality among patients managed for ischemic stroke.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We included all first-ever ischemic stroke patients enrolled in the multiethnic Malaysian National Neurology Registry (NNeuR) - a prospective cohort study and followed-up for six months. Patients’ baseline clinical characteristics, risk factors, neurological findings, treatments, KPI and mortality outcome were evaluated. The KPI nonadherence (NAR) and relationship with mortality were evaluated. NAR&gt;25% threshold was considered suboptimal.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: A total of 579 first-ever ischemic stroke patients were included in the final analysis. The overall mortality was recorded as 23 (4.0%) in six months, with a median (interquartile) age of 65 (20) years. Majority of the patients (dead or alive) had partial anterior circulation infarct, PACI (43.5%; 34.0%) and total anterior circulation infarct, TACI (26.1%; 8.8%). In addition, DVT prophylaxis (82.8%), anticoagulant for atrial fibrillation (AF) patients (48.8%) and rehabilitation (26.2%) were considered suboptimal. NAR &lt; 2 was significantly associated with a decrease in mortality (odds ratio 0.16; 0.02-0.12) compared to NAR&gt;2. Survival analysis showed that death is more likely in patients with NAR&gt;2 (p=0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: KPI nonadherence was associated with mortality among ischemic stroke patients. The adherence to the KPI was sub-optimal, particularly in DVT prophylaxis, anticoagulant for AF patients and rehabilitation. These findings reflect the importance of continuous quality measurement and implementation of evidence recommendations in healthcare delivery to achieve optimal outcome among stroke patients.</p> 2020-03-09T20:30:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1808 Value of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis by enoxaparin with anti-factor Xa trough concentration monitoring in surgical care 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Seeba Zachariah dr.seeba@gmu.ac.ae Maitha Al-Tamimi phmaitha@hotmail.com Prasanna Vippadapu prasannav267@gmail.com Wessa Shenouda wessa.wasfy@gmail.com Dixon Thomas dixon.thomas@gmail.com 2020-02-17T10:57:36+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1862 Strategies for inclusion of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, and asexual (LGBTQIA+) education throughout pharmacy school curricula 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Chelsey K. Llayton llaytonck@mymail.vcu.edu Lauren M. Caldas lmcaldas@vcu.edu <p>Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer, intersex, asexual, and others (LGBTQIA+) patients face stigma and barriers to health care, including a lack of health care professionals’ knowledge and confidence in treating this patient population. Pharmacists are in prime position to decrease this health disparity. United States pharmacy schools have limited LGBTQIA+ content, continuing the concern of recent graduates without knowledge and confidence. This commentary discusses potential barriers to introducing LGBTQIA+ content into school of pharmacy curricula and presents five strategies currently in use by nursing, medical, and pharmacy schools. Schools of Pharmacy should consider proactive incorporation of this content to graduate practitioners able to provide quality care to LGBTQIA+ patients.</p> 2020-03-06T18:57:06+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1870 Primary health care policy and vision for community pharmacy and pharmacists in England 2020-03-26T16:34:20+00:00 Claire Anderson claire.Anderson@nottingham.ac.uk Ravi Sharma Ravi.sharma@rpharms.com <p>The United Kingdom health and care system is changing dramatically to meet the health challenges of the 21<sup>st</sup> century. People will increasingly have multiple morbidities. The focus of service delivery is changing from hospital to community, patient to population and curative to preventive. This paper describes the NHS and primary care and community pharmacy in England at the start of 2020, a time of great change. The 10-year vison for the NHS is that everyone gets the best start in life, world class care for major health problems supporting people to age well. It has over 40 mentions of pharmacists and pharmacy. The key aims of the plan are to improve ‘out-of-hospital’ care, and finally dissolve the historic divide between primary and community health service in England. All of England is covered by integrated care systems and the newly formed primary care networks which will form the foundation of these new systems. Pharmacy is involved at multiple levels. There are 11,569 community pharmacies and most of their total income comes from the NHS (range 68-85%). Around 60% pharmacies are part of multiple chains, with the remaining 40% independents or small chains of less than six outlets. The new five-year community pharmacy contract provides an opportunity to develop community pharmacy and move towards service delivery away from dispensing volume. The new services are described under medicines optimisation, prevention and urgent care. The pharmacy quality scheme is also described. The new deal will help many community pharmacies to plan their future, particularly for those pharmacies who are ready and able to change and work closely with pharmacists and other health professionals in collaboration with Primary Care Networks. There will be specific challenges around: dispensing efficiencies, freeing up pharmacists’ time, wider use of clinical skills of community pharmacists, community pharmacy viability and consolidations.</p> 2020-03-13T10:20:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Pharmacy Practice and the Authors