Job satisfaction among chain community pharmacists: results from a pilot study
Objectives: The objectives of this study were to obtain pilot data concerning the job satisfaction of Tucson area retail chain setting and to identify the facets of community practice that have the greatest contribution to job satisfaction.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of chain pharmacists in the Tucson area. The Warr-Cook-Wall questionnaire of job satisfaction was used to evaluate community pharmacists’ satisfaction with their current position. This study used Rasch analysis to assess the validity and reliability of the questionnaire. The Rasch scores obtained for each respondent were used as a dependent variable in univariate and bivariate analyses to evaluate differences in job satisfaction.
Results: A total of 32 pharmacists responded from 129 chain community pharmacies in the cities of Tucson, Marana and Oro Valley, Arizona. The mean (SD) Rasch score for job satisfaction was 0.93 (2.1). Results from bivariate analysis indicate that pharmacists in the Tucson area with practice experience outside community pharmacy were less satisfied with their job compared to those without experience outside community pharmacy (p<0.01).
Conclusions: This pilot evaluation suggests that having pharmacy experience outside community practice affects pharmacist job satisfaction. Additionally, findings from this study indicate that there is reliability and validity evidence to support the use of the modified Warr-Cook-Wall questionnaire for assessing overall job satisfaction in chain community pharmacy practice.
2. Murawski MM, Payakachat N, Koh-Knox C. Factors affecting job and career satisfaction among community pharmacists: a structural equation modeling approach. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2008;48(5):610-620.
3. Kreling DH, Doucette WR, Mott DA, Gaither CA, Pedersen CA, Schommer JC. Community pharmacists’ work environments: evidence from the 2004 National Pharmacist Workforce Study. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2006;46(3):331-339.
4. Mott DA, Doucette WR, Gaither CA, Pedersen CA, Schommer JC. Pharmacists' Attitudes Toward Worklife: Results from a National Survey of Pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2004;44(3):326-336.
5. Bond CA, Raehl CL. Pharmacists' assessment of dispensing errors: Risk factors, practice sites, professional functions, and satisfaction. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21(5):614-626.
6. Gaither CA. Career commitment: a mediator of the effects of job stress on pharmacists' work-related attitudes. J Am Pharm Assoc. 1999;39(3):353-361.
7. Seston E, Hassell K, Ferguson J, Hann M. Exploring the relationship between pharmacists' job satisfaction, intention to quit the profession, and actual quitting. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2009;5(2):121-32.
8. Gaither CA, Kahaleh AA, Doucette WR, Mott DA, Pederson CA, Schommer JC. A modified model of pharmacists' job stress: The role of organizational, extra-role, and individual factors on work-related outcomes. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2008;4(3):231-43.
9. Lerkiatbundit S. Predictors of job satisfaction in pharmacists. J Soc Adm Pharm. 2000;17(1):45-50.
10. Gubbins TV, Rascati KL. Satisfaction with management and overall job satisfaction of Texas chain store pharmacists. J Pharm Mark Manage. 1992;6(3):59-74.
11. Payakachat N, Ounpraseuth S, Ragland D, Murawski MM. Job and career satisfaction among pharmacy preceptors. Am J Pharm Educ. 2011;75(8):153.
12. Ferguson J, Ashcroft D, Hassell K. Qualitative insights into job satisfaction and dissatisfaction with management among community and hospital pharmacists. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2011;7(3):306-316.
13. Mihm DJ, Mihm LB, Lonie JM, Dolinsky D. Selected perceptual determinants of pharmacy students' expected job satisfaction: a pilot study. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning. 2011;3(3):185-191.
14. Hardigan P, Carvajal M. Job satisfaction among practicing pharmacists: a Rasch analysis. The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice. 2007;5(4):1-9.
15. Maio V, Goldfarb NI, Hartmann CW. Pharmacists’ job satisfaction: variation by practice setting. P & T. 2004;29(3):184-190.
16. Carvajal MJ, Hardigan PC. Pharmacists' sources of job satisfaction: inter-gender differences in response. Am JPharm Educ. 2000;64(4):420-425.
17. Kerschen AM, Armstrong EP, Hillman TN. Job satisfaction among staff, clinical, and integrated hospital pharmacists. J Pharm Pract. 2006;19(5):306-312.
18. Mott DA, Doucette WR, Gaither CA, Kreling DH, Pedersen CA, Schommer JC. Pharmacist Participation in the Workforce: 1990, 2000, and 2004. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2006 May-Jun;46(3):322-330.
19. Hardigan PCM. Application of Rasch rating scale model to analysis of job satisfaction among practicing pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2008;48(4):522-529.
20. Hassell K, Seston E, Shann P. Measuring job satisfaction of UK pharmacists: a pilot study. Int J Pharm Prac. 2007;15(4):259-264.
21. Dowell AC, Westcott T, McLeod DK, Hamilton S. A survey of job satisfaction, sources of stress and psychological symptoms among New Zealand health professionals. N Z Med J. 2001;114(1145):540-543.
22. Linacre JM. Optimizing rating scale category effectiveness. J Appl Meas. 2002;3(1):85-106.
23. Bond TG, Fox CM. Applying the Rasch model: Fundamental measurement in the human sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum; 2001.
24. Wright BD, Linacre JM. Reasonable mean-square fit values. Rasch Measurement Transactions.1994;8(3):370.
25. Baghaei P. The Rasch model as a construct validation tool. Rasch Measurement Transactions. 2008;22(1):1145-1146.
26. Linacre JM. Relating Cronback and Rasch reliabilities. Rasch Measurement Transactions. 1999;13(2):696.
27. Linacre JM, Wright B. Interpreting output tables. A User's Guide to BIGSTEPS WINSTEPS Rasch Model Computer Program. Chicago: MESA Press; 2001:94-115.
28. Frost MH, Reeve BB, Liepa AM, Stauffer JW, Hays RD. What Is Sufficient Evidence for the Reliability and Validity of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures? Value Health. 2007;10(Suppl 2):S94-S105.
29. Cox F, Carroll N. Comparison of practice patterns and job satisfaction of entry level PharmD and BS level graduates in hospital and community practice. Am J Pharm Educ. 1988;52(1):47.
30. Salancik GR, Pfeffer J. An examination of need-satisfaction models of job attitudes. Adm Sci Q. 1977;22:427-456.
31. Weng LJ, Cheng CP. Effects of response order on Likert-type scales. Educ Psychol Meas. 2000;60(6):908-924.
32. Chan JC. Response-order effects in Likert-type scales. Educ Psychol Meas. 1991;51(3):531-540.
The authors hereby transfer, assign, or otherwise convey to Pharmacy Practice: (1) the right to grant permission to republish or reprint the stated material, in whole or in part, without a fee; (2) the right to print pr epublish copies for free distribution or sale; and (3) the right to republish the stated material in any format (electronic or printed). In addition, the undersigned affirms that the article described above has not previously been published, in whole or part, is not subject to copyright or other rights except by the author(s), and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as communicated in writing to Pharmacy Practice with this document.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Author Self-Archiving Policy
Pharmacy Practice permits and encourages authors to post and archive the final pdf of the articles submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit its publication in this journal.