Immigration within European Union – Does health immigration make a difference in analgesic use?
European integration has facilitated the emigration inside Europe and it has been predicted that the amount of immigrants in Southern European countries will increase in the future. As these people age and their morbidity increases, they will demand more services from local health care than immigrants do at the moment.
The aim of this study is to determine the amount of Finnish people who have moved to Spain for health reasons (health immigrants) and whether their health service and analgesic usage patterns differed from those of non-health immigrants.
Methods: This study was carried out among Finnish people living in Costa del Sol area, southern Spain. The data were collected by questionnaire during 2002 by using a convenience sample of 1,000 Finns living permanently in the area (response rate 53%, n=530). Statistical analyses were conducted using statistical software SPSS 11.5.
Results: Two-thirds of the respondents were categorised as health immigrants. Health immigrants were more often suffering from chronic morbidity, their perceived health status was poorer and they used public health services more often than the non-health immigrants. Half (50%) of the all respondents had used some analgesics during the two weeks before the survey. There were more analgesic users among the health immigrant group (54 % vs. 43 %, p = 0.034) and they also used analgesics more frequently than the non-health immigrants (27 % vs. 9 %, p= 0.020).
Conclusions: Our study indicates, that high amount of Finnish immigrants suffer from some degree of health problems and the health state factors have a large influence on the emigration into Spain. As this kind of trend might also exist among immigrants from other EU-nations, immigrants might burden the local Spanish health care services in the future. Therefore the Providers of health care services in immigrant areas should consider these trends in planning health care in the future.
2. Figueiras A, Caamano F, Gestal-Otero JJ. Sociodemographic factors related to self-medication in Spain. Eur J Epidemiol 2000;16(1):19-26.
3. Mason P: Pharmacy in Spain. Pharm J 1999;263(7067):649-50.
4. Elliott AM, Smith BH, Penny KI, Smith WC, Hannaford PC, Penny K: The epidemiology of chronic pain in the community. Lancet 1999;354(9186):1248-52.
5. Blyth FM, March LM, Brnabic AJ, Jorm LR, Williamson M, Cousins MJ. Chronic pain in Australia: a prevalence study. Pain 2001; 89 (2-3):127-34.
6. Kind P, Dolan P, Gudex C, Williams A. Variations in population health status: results from a United Kingdom national questionnaire survey. BMJ 1998;316:736-40.
7. Mäntyselkä P, Kumpusalo E, Ahonen R, Kumpusalo A, Kauhanen J, Viinamäki H, Halonen P Takala J. Pain as a reason to visit the doctor: a study in Finnish primary health care. Pain 2001;89:175-80.
8. Antonov KIM, Isacson DGL. Prescription and Nonprescription Analgesics Use in Sweden. Ann Pharmacother 1998;32:485-94.
9. Fury K, Straume B, Thelle DS. Legal drug use in a general population: Association with gender, morbidity, health care utilisation and lifestyle characteristics. J Clin Epidemiol 1997;50(3):341-9.
10. Hanlon JT, Fillenbaum GG, Studenski SA, Ziqubu-Page T, Wall WE Jr. Factors associated with suboptimal analgesics use in community-dwelling elderly. Ann Pharmacother 1996;30(7-8):739-44.
11. Paulose-Ram R, Hirsch R, Dillon C, Losonczy K, Cooper M, Ostchega Y. Prescription and non-prescription analgesic use among the US adult population: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2003;12(4):315-26.
12. Ahonen R, Enlund H, Klaukka T, Vohlonen I. Use of analgesics in a rural Finnish population. J Pharmacoepidemiol 1991;2:3-17.
13. Eggen AE. The Tromso Study: frequency and predicting factors of analgesic drug use in free-living population (12-56-years). J Clin Epidemiol 1993; 46(11)1297-304.
14. Finnish Statistics of Medicines 2002.Publications of the National Agency for Medicines and Social Insurance Institution. Edita Prima Oy. 2003.
15. Karisto A. Satumaa? Tutkimus Espanjaan muuttaneista suomalaisista eläkeläisistä [Fairyland ? A study about retired Finns moved to Spain ]. Manuscript in Finnish, 2002.
16. Heikkilä T. Statistical analysis. Oy Edita Ab, Helsinki 2001. (In Finnish).
The authors hereby transfer, assign or otherwise convey to Pharmacy Practice (1) the right to grant permission to republish or reprint the stated material, in whole or in part, without a fee; (2) the right to print or epublish copies for free distribution or sale; and (3) the right to republish the stated material in any format (electronic or printed). In addition, the undersigned affirms that the article described above has not previously been published, in whole or part, is not subject to copyright or other rights except by the author(s), and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as communicated in writing to Pharmacy Practice with this document.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Author Self-Archiving Policy
Pharmacy Practice permits and encourages authors to post and archive the final PDFs of their respective articles submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit its publication in this journal.