Documentation of pharmacotherapeutic interventions of pharmacy students

  • Elicia D. King
  • Mamie A. Wilson
  • Linh Van
  • Frank S. Emanuel
Keywords: Students, Pharmacy, Medical Records, Treatment Outcome, United States


During patient care rounds with the medical team, pharmacy students have made positive contributions for the benefit of the patient.  However, very little has been documented regarding the impact these future healthcare professionals are making while on clinical rotations.

The objective of this study was to assess the impact that clinical interventions made by 6th year pharmacy students had on overall patient outcome.

Using a special program for a personal digital assistant (PDA), the students daily recorded the pharmacotherapeutic interventions they made.  The interventions ranged from dosage adjustments to providing drug information. Data was collected over a 12-week period from various hospitals and clinics in the Jacksonville, Florida area.

In total, there were 89 pharmaceutical interventions performed and recorded by the students.  Fifty interventions involved drug modification and fifty-four interventions were in regards to drug information and consulting.  Of the drug information and consulting interventions, 15 were drug modification.

This study shows the impact pharmacy students make in identifying, recommending, and documenting clinical pharmacotherapeutic interventions.  Similar to pharmacists, pharmacy students can also have a positive contribution towards patient care.


Download data is not yet available.


1. Leape LL, Cullen DJ, Clapp MD, et al. Pharmacist Participation on Physician Rounds and Adverse Drug Events in the Intensive Care Unit. JAMA 1999;282:267-270.

2. Montazeri M, Cook DJ. Impact of a Clinical Pharmacist in a Multidisciplinary Intensive Care Unit. Crit Care Med 1994;22(6):1044-8.

3. Hanlon JT, Weinberger M, Samsa GP. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of a Clinical Pharmacist Intervention to Improve Inappropriate Prescribing in Elderly Outpatients with Polypharmacy. Am J Med 1999;100(4):428-37.

4. Keely JL; American College of Physicians-American Society of Internal Medicine. Pharmacist scope of practice.. Ann Intern Med. 2002;136(1):79-85.

5. McMullin ST, Hennenfent JA, Ritchie DJ, Huey WY, Lonergan TP, Schaiff RA, Tonn ME, Bailey TC. A Prospective, Randomized Trial to Assess the Cost Impact of Pharmacist-Initiated Interventions. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(19):2306-9.

6. Gattis WA, Hasselblad V, Whellan DJ, O'Connor CM. Reduction in heart failure events by the addition of a clinical pharmacist to the heart failure management team: results of the Pharmacist in Heart Failure Assessment Recommendation and Monitoring (PHARM) Study. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(16):1939-45.

7. Freml JM, Farris KB, Fang G, Currie J. Iowa Priority’s Brown Bag Medication Reviews: A Comparison of Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists. Am J Pharm Educ 2004;68(2):article 50.

8. Collins MF. Measuring Performance Indicators in Clinical Pharmacy Services with a Personal Digital Assistant. Am J Health-Syst. Pharm 2004;61:498-501.

9. Bosinski TJ, Campbell L, Schwartz S. Using a Personal Digital Assistant to Document Pharmacotherapeutic Interventions. Am J Health Syst Pharm 2004;61(9):931-4.
How to Cite
King ED, Wilson MA, Van L, Emanuel FS. Documentation of pharmacotherapeutic interventions of pharmacy students. Pharm Pract (Granada) [Internet]. 2007Jun.18 [cited 2020Feb.23];5(2):95-8. Available from:
Original Research