Descriptive assessment of graduates' perceptions of pharmacy-related competencies based on the Lebanese pharmacy core competencies framework

Keywords: Education, Pharmacy, Schools, Pharmacy, Students, Pharmacy, Curriculum, Pharmacists, Perception, Attitude, Competency-Based Education, Professional Competence, Cross-Sectional Studies, Lebanon


Background: Pharmacists possess a unique and complex body of knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors necessary to enable them to optimize health outcomes. Pharmacy organizations publish routinely updated versions of professional competencies that help pharmacy schools integrate advances into their curricula. In Lebanon, no national framework for pharmacy education is officially adopted yet.  In 2017, the Official Pharmacists’ Association in Lebanon [OPL - Order of Pharmacists of Lebanon] took the initiative to develop a pharmacy core competency framework.

Objective: The primary objective of this survey was to evaluate graduates' perceptions of pharmacy-related competencies “taught” across Lebanese pharmacy schools/faculties, based on the suggested Lebanese Pharmacy Competencies Framework. This study also explored the association between graduates' demographics, university attributes, and self-assessed competency performance.

Methods: A cross-sectional study involving pharmacists who graduated from Lebanese universities was performed through a 40-minute online questionnaire distributed over social media platforms and groups of pharmacists.

Results: Pharmacists perceived their competence as moderate upon graduation, the lowest scores being in fundamental knowledge and medicine supply; the highest reported scores were in personal skills and safe/rational use of medicines. Moreover, females, younger graduates, PharmD holders, and pharmacists working in hospitals/clinical settings and academia had the highest perception of their competencies. Pharmacists in the public sector and medical laboratory directors had the lowest perception of competence.

Conclusions: When comparing the taught curriculum to the suggested Lebanese Pharmacy Competency Framework, all domains need to be improved to optimize the perception, education, and practice of pharmacists. It is essential to emphasize fundamental knowledge, medicines supply, and public health competencies in undergraduate curricula and improve continuing professional education.


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How to Cite
Zeenny RM, Akel M, Hajj A, Sacre H, Hallit S, Salameh P. Descriptive assessment of graduates’ perceptions of pharmacy-related competencies based on the Lebanese pharmacy core competencies framework. Pharm Pract (Granada) [Internet]. 2021Jun.22 [cited 2021Jul.26];19(2):2320. Available from:
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