A comprehensive view of knowledge and osteoporosis status among type 2 diabetes mellitus in Malaysia: A cross sectional study
Background: osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus are highly prevalent diseases that have potentially devastating effects on health and socioeconomic status.
Objective: The aims of this study were to assess: 1) the level of osteoporosis knowledge among T2DM patients; 2) the correlation, associations or differences of demographic characteristics, diabetes-related variable, as well as, lipid and blood pressure profiles with osteoporosis knowledge; and 3) the correlation between T-score measurement using quantitative ultrasound scan (QUS) and osteoporosis knowledge.
Methods: A cross-sectional study design was chosen, where data was collected using a self-report structured questionnaire using osteoporosis knowledge - Malay version questionnaire (OKT-M) among T2DM patients. Furthermore, the clinical data regarding the patients were collected retrospectively from the hospital medical record after patient interview was completed.
Results: The average age of the patients was 62.67 (SD 9.24) years (ranged from 33 to 87 years). Males (231, 51.30%) slightly outnumbered females. Among the racial distribution, the proportion of Chinese patients (204, 45.30%) was higher than Malay (127, 28.20%) and Indian patients (119, 26.40%). In addition, more than three quarters (343, 76.20%) of patients had poor glycaemic control. The average OKT-M total score, OKT-M Exercise subscale and OKT-M Calcium subscale were 12.55 (SD 4.06), 8.60 (SD 2.89) and 8.40 (SD 3.36), respectively. Only 33.30% of the T2DM patients were found to have high level of osteoporosis knowledge. There was a lack of identification and recognition of osteoporosis risk factors. There were significant differences or associations between osteoporosis knowledge and education level, monthly income, employment status, family history of fracture, smoking habit, alcoholic status, insulin use, therapy type and diastolic blood pressure. In addition, significant and positive correlations were found between T-scores and OKT-M total score (n=450, rs= 0.244, P=0.000), OKT-M Exercise subscale (n=450, rs= 0.219, P=0.000) and OKT-M Calcium subscale (n=450, rs=0.199, P=0.000) among T2DM patients (all Ps<0.05).
Conclusions: Overall, the study results showed a valuable insight into the knowledge toward osteoporosis, as well as its relation to the bone loss among T2DM patients. It is important to understand the basics of osteoporosis prevention behaviours such as adequate calcium intake and regular exercise which are essential to build and maintain healthy bones throughout life among T2DM.
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