Assessment of pharmacists’ knowledge, attitude and practice in chain community pharmacies towards their current function and performance in Indonesia
Background: The introduction of universal healthcare coverage in 2014 has affected the practice of community pharmacies in Indonesia. Studies regarding the practice of pharmacist in the chain community pharmacy setting in Indonesia are very limited. The chain community pharmacies in Indonesia are operated and controlled by the same management. The chain community pharmacies usually show better services compared to independent community pharmacies in Indonesia.
Objective: The study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of pharmacist working in chain community pharmacy towards their current function and performance in delivering pharmacy services
Methods: A cross-sectional study using questionnaires was conducted between January and March 2017 in KF, one of the largest chain community pharmacies in Indonesia. The total sampling method was used in the recruitment process. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, independent t-Test and one-way ANOVA. The KAP scores were assessed and categorized as “poor”, “moderate” and “good” based on the standardized scoring system.
Results: A total of 949 KF’s pharmacists (100% response rate) were participated in the study. The majority of pharmacists showed a good score in terms of knowledge and attitude, which is in contrast to practice as majority only obtained a moderate score. Working experience, age and the availability of standard operating procedures (SOP) for both dispensing and self-medication services were found to be statistically significant (p<0.005) aspects to KAP of pharmacists in delivering pharmacy services.
Conclusions: This study identified several important aspects that could affect the KAP of pharmacists working in chain community pharmacies in Indonesia. Specific policies should be conceived to improve the competencies of pharmacist and to ensure the compliance with the SOP and standardization system within pharmacy sector.
McMillan SS, Wheeler AJ, Sav A, King MA, Whitty JA, Kendall E, Kelly F. Community pharmacy in Australia: a health hub destination of the future. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2013;9(6):863-875. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2012.11.003
Scahill S, Harrison J, Carswell P, Shaw J. Health care policy and community pharmacy: implications for the New Zealand primary health care sector. N Z Med J. 2010;123(1317):41-51.
Patwardhan PD, Amin ME, Chewning BA. Intervention research to enhance community pharmacists' cognitive services: a systematic review. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2014;10(3):475-493. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.07.005
Benrimoj S, Feletto E, Gastelurrutia MÁ, Martínez-Martínez F, Faus Dáder MJ. A holistic and integrated approach to implementing cognitive pharmaceutical services. Ara Pharmaceutica. 2010;51(2):69-87.
Hunt BD, Hiles SL, Chauhan A, Ighofose C, Bharakhada N, Jain A, Davies MJ, Khunti K. Evaluation of the Healthy LifeCheck programme: a vascular risk assessment service for community pharmacies in Leicester city, UK. J Public Health (Oxf). 2013;35(3):440-446. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdt017
Laliberté MC, Damestoy N, Perreault S, Lalonde L. The role of community pharmacists in health promotion and prevention. Can Pharm J. 2012;145(4):S6.
Hermansyah A, Sainsbury E, Krass I. Investigating the impact of the universal healthcare coverage programme on community pharmacy practice. Health Soc Care Community. 2018;26(2):e249-e260. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12506
Ministry of Health Indonesia. Permenkes No. 9 tahun 2017 tentang Apotek (Community Pharmacy Decree). Jakarta: Ministry of Health Indonesia; 2017.
Hermansyah A, Pitaloka D, Sainsbury E, Krass I. Prioritising recommendations to advance community pharmacy practice. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2018;14(12):1147-1156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2018.02.003
Miller R, Goodman C. Performance of retail pharmacies in low- and middle-income Asian settings: a systematic review. Health Policy Plan. 2016;31(7):940-953. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czw007
Ministry of Health Indonesia. Recapitulation of Community Pharmacy in Indonesia (2018) Jakarta: Ministry of Health Indonesia. Available at: http://apif.binfar.depkes.go.id/grafik-apotek.php (accessed Jul 29, 2019).
Ken Research Private Ltd. Indonesia Pharmacy Retail Market Outlook to 2022 - by Pharmacies & Drugstores and By Region (Central Java, East Java, West Java, North Sumatra, Jakarta and Others). Indonesia: Ken Research Private Limited, 2018 ID: 4586463.
Puspitasari H, Faturrohmah A, Hermansyah A. Do Indonesian community pharmacy workers respond to antibiotics requests appropriately? Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16(7):840-846. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02782.x
Hermansyah A, Sainsbury E, Krass I. Community pharmacy and emerging public health initiatives in developing Southeast Asian countries: a systematic review. Health Soc Care Community. 2016;24(5):e11-e22. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.12289
Andayani TM, Satibi S. Pharmacy practice in Indonesia. In: Fathelrahman A, Ibrahim MI, Wertheimer AI, ed. Pharmacy practice in Developing Countries: achievements and challenges. London: Academic Press; 2016.
Xi X, Huang Y, Lu Q, Ung COL, Hu H. Community pharmacists’ opinions and practice of pharmaceutical care at chain pharmacy and independent pharmacy in China. Int J Clin Pharm. 2019;41(2):478-487. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-019-00802-w
Bush J, Langley CA, Wilson KA. The corporatization of community pharmacy: Implications for service provision, the public health function, and pharmacy's claims to professional status in the United Kingdom. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2009;5(4):305-318. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2009.01.003
Kruijtbosch M, Göttgens-Jansen W, Floor-Schreudering A, van Leeuwen E, Bouvy ML. Moral dilemmas of community pharmacists: a narrative study. Int J Clin Pharm. 2018;40(1):74-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-017-0561-0
Bodreau C. The Corporatization of Retail Pharmacy: Changes in Efficacy, Reliability, and Expedience. 2015.
Hermansyah A, Sukorini AI, Setiawan CD, Priyandani Y. The conflicts between professional and non professional work of community pharmacists in Indonesia. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2012;10(1):33-39. https://doi.org/10.4321/s1886-36552012000100006
Athiyah U. Model Asuhan Kefarmasian Pelayanan Obat yang diresepkan dan pengaruhnya terhadap Perilaku Apoteker dalam Asuhan Kefarmasian (The model of pharmaceutical care services for prescribed medicines and its impact to pharmacists' behavior in delivering pharmaceutical care services). Surabaya: Airlangga University; 2007.
Suhartono, Athiyah U, Utami W. Analisis Hubungan Profesionalisme Apoteker dengan Praktek Asuhan Kefarmasian: Studi pada Kasus Terapi Diabetes di Apotek Wilayah Kabupaten Sidoarjo (Analysing the correlation between professionalism of pharmacist and pharmaceutical care services: the case of diabetes mellitus therapy in community pharmacy in Sidoarjo). Jurnal Ilmu Kefarmasian Indonesia. 2017;13(2):166-73.
Wassenaar DR, Mamotte N. Ethical issues and ethics reviews in social science research. In: Leach MM, Stevens MJ, Korkut Y, Lindsay G, Ferrero A, eds.The Oxford handbook of international psychological ethics. Oxford: OUP; 2012.
Schafheutle EI, Seston EM, Hassell K. Factors influencing pharmacist performance: a review of the peer-reviewed literature. Health Policy. 2011;102(2-3):178-192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2011.06.004
Ministry of Health Indonesia. Permenkes No. 73 tahun 2016 tentang Standar Pelayanan Kefarmasian di Apotek (Standard of pharmacy services in community pharmacy). Jakarta: Ministry of Health Indonesia; 2016.
McCann L, Hughes CM, Adair CG, Cardwell C. Assessing job satisfaction and stress among pharmacists in Northern Ireland. Pharm World Sci. 2009;31(2):188-194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-008-9277-5
Cooksey JA, Knapp KK, Walton SM, Cultice JM. Challenges To The Pharmacist Profession From Escalating Pharmaceutical Demand. Health Aff (Millwood). 2002;21(5):182-188.
Calgan Z, Aslan D, Yegenoglu S. Community pharmacists’ burnout levels and related factors: an example from Turkey. Int J Clin Pharm. 2011;33(1):92-100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-010-9461-2
Bruce SP. Recognizing stress and avoiding burnout. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2009;1(1):57-64.
Gaither CA, Kahaleh AA, Doucette WR, Mott DA, Pederson CA, Schommer JC. A modified model of pharmacists' job stress: The role of organizational, extra-role, and individual factors on work-related outcomes. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2008;4(3):231-243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2008.04.001
World Health Organization. The Role of the pharmacist in self-care and self-medication: report of the 4th WHO Consultative Group on the Role of the Pharmacist, The Hague, The Netherlands, 26-28 August 1998. Geneva: WHO; 1998.
Bennadi D. Self-medication: A current challenge. J Basic Clin Pharm. 2013;5(1):19. https://doi.org/10.4103%2F0976-0105.128253
Jain S, Malvi R, Purviya JK. Concept of self medication: A review. Int J Pharm Biol Arch. 2011;2(3):831-836.
Budiningsih I, Soehari TD, Ahmad M. Increase Competency Through Training Interventions. Int J Appl Bus Econ Res. 2017;15(6):249-266.
Mak VSL, March GJ, Clark A, Gilbert AL. Why do Australian registered pharmacists leave the profession? a qualitative study. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013;35(1):129-137. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-012-9720-5
Seston E, Hassell K, Ferguson J, Hann M. Exploring the relationship between pharmacists' job satisfaction, intention to quit the profession, and actual quitting. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2009;5(2):121-132. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2008.08.002
Magola E, Willis SC, Schafheutle EI. What can community pharmacy learn from the experiences of transition to practice for novice doctors and nurses? A narrative review. Int J Pharm Pract. 2018;26(1):4-15. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12349
Gaither CA. Job satisfaction and intention to leave the profession: Should we care? Res Social Adm Pharm. 2009;5(2):91-93. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2009.04.001
Bimrose J, Hearne L. Resilience and career adaptability: Qualitative studies of adult career counseling. J Vocat Behav. 2012;81(3):338-344. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2012.08.002
Bimrose J, Brown A. Mid-career progression and development: The role for career guidance and counseling. Handbook of career development: Springer: New York; 2014.
Griffiths V, Thompson S, Hryniewicz L. Landmarks in the professional and academic development of mid-career teacher educators. Eur J Teach Educ. 2014;37(1):74-90. https://doi.org/10.1080/02619768.2013.825241
Crawford L, Morris P, Thomas J, Winter M. Practitioner development: From trained technicians to reflective practitioners. Int J Project Manag. 2006;24(8):722-733. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2006.09.010
WHO-FIP. Annex 8: Joint FIP/WHO guidelines on good pharmacy practice: standards for quality of pharmacy services. World Health Organization, 2010 0512-3054 Contract No.: Report.
Thomas CE, Phipps DL, Ashcroft DM. When procedures meet practice in community pharmacies: qualitative insights from pharmacists and pharmacy support staff. BMJ Open. 2016;6(6):e010851. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010851
Lu H, Eriksson T, Wiffen P. Evidence based pharmacy for developing countries. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2015;22(2):66-72. http://doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2015-000643