Communication skills in Brazilian pharmaceutical education: a documentary analysis

Keywords: Health Communication, Social Skills, Education, Pharmacy, Curriculum, Students, Pharmacy, Pharmacists, Brazil

Abstract

Objective: To characterize the inclusion of the teaching of communication skills in the curriculum of Pharmacy Schools of Federal Institutions of Higher Education.

Methods: An exploratory study of documental analysis of curriculum of Pharmacy Schools was carried out. A convenience sample was selected from undergraduate pharmacy courses of Federal Institutions of Higher Education (IFES). The variables collected were related to the identification of the course, its nature (elective or mandatory), workload, semester, and program content.

Results: Among the 49 undergraduate pharmacy courses of IFES, 35 (71.4%) had their curriculum available online. The teaching of communication in health was identified in 26 (74.3%) curriculum. In this study, three courses (7.2%) specifically aimed at teaching communication skills, while 39 (92.9%) had content related to this subject. Most courses (22; 52.4%) belonged to the field of Social, Behavioral, and Administrative Sciences. As for the course period, there was a concentration in the third (19%) and fourth (28.6%) years. The main content present in the curriculum was related to the principles and techniques of health communication (42.8%).

Conclusions: Data obtained enabled the identification of gaps in the curricula of undergraduate courses in pharmacy concerning the inclusion of the teaching of communication skills. These results can be used to reflect the current models adopted in Brazil for the teaching of this skills, especially after the recent publication of the new curricular guidelines for undergraduate pharmacy courses.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Hepler CD, Strand LM. Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm. 1990;47(3):533-543.

Dewulf NL, dos Santos V, Leira Pereira LR, Troncon LE. The invisible pharmacist. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009;73(4):74.

Lyra Junior DP. Impacto de um programa de atenção farmacêutica no cuidado de um grupo de idosos atendidos na Unidade Básica Distrital de Saúde Dr. Ítalo Baruffi, Ribeirão Preto (SP). [Thesis]. Ribeirão Preto: Universidade de São Paulo; 2005.

World Health Organization. WHO. "The role of the pharmacist in the health care system: preparing the future pharmacist: curricular development: report of a third WHO Consultative Group on the Role of the Pharmacist, Vancouver, Canada, 1997. Available at: http://www.who.int/medicinedocs/en/d/Js2214e/ (accessed Aug 7, 2017).

European Parliament and the Council. Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications 17/01/2014 (consolidated version). 2005/36/EC. J Eur Union. 2005;2005.

Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. Accreditation Standards and Key Elements for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy Degree; 2016. Available at: https://www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/Standards2016FINAL.pdf (accessed Oct 16, 2018).

International Pharmaceutical Federation. Nanjing Statements. Statements on Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Education. The Hague: FIP; 2017.

Berger BA. Communication Skills for Pharmacists: Building Relationships, Improving Patient Care. 3rd ed. Washington, DC: Jobson; 2009.

Makowski CT, Jennings DL, Nemerovski CW, Szandzik EG, Kalus JS. The impact of pharmacist-directed patient education and anticoagulant care coordination on patient satisfaction. Ann Pharmacother. 2013;47(6):805-810. https://dx.doi.org/10.1345/aph.1R686

Wallman A, Vaudan C, Sporrong SK. Communications training in pharmacy education, 1995-2010. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013;77(2):36. https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe77236

Marriott JL, Nation RL, Roller L, Costelloe M, Galbraith K, Stewart P, Charman WN. Pharmacy education in the context of Australian practice. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(6):131.

Brock D, Abu-Rish E, Chiu CR, Hammer D, Wilson S, Vorvick L, Blondon K, Schaad D, Liner D, Zierler B. Interprofessional education in team communication: working together to improve patient safety. BMJ Qual Saf. 2013;22(5):414-23. https://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjqs-2012-000952

Hanya M, Kanno Y, Akasaki J, Abe K, Fujisaki K, Kamei H. Effects of communication skill training (CST) based on SPIKES for insurance-covered pharmacy pharmacists to interact with simulated cancer patients. J Pharm Health Care Sci. 2017;3:11. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40780-017-0080-0

Luetsch K, Burrows J. From transitions to transformation - A study of pharmacists developing patient-centered communication skills. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2018;14(7):686-694. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.08.003

Internacional Pharmaceutical Federation/ World Health Organization. Joint FIP/WHO guidelines on good pharmacy practice: standards for quality of pharmacy services. Hyderabad: FIP/WHO; 2011.

Seybert AL. Patient Simulation in Pharmacy Education. Am J Pharm Educ. 2011;75(9):187. https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe759187

Medina MS, Plaza CM, Stowe CD, Robinson ET, De Lander G, Beck DE, Melchert RB, Supernaw RB, Roche VF, Gleason BL, Strong MN, Bain A, Meyer GE, Dong BJ, Rochon J, Johnston P. Center for the Advancement of Pharmacy Education 2013 Educational Outcomes. Am J Pharm Educ. 2013;77(8):162. https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe778162

Dolinsky D. Pharmaceutical Psychology. Am J Pharm Educ. 1979;43(3):261-266.

Svarstad BL. Pharmaceutical Sociology: Issues in Research, Education and Service. Am J Pharm Educ. 1979;43(3):252-257.

Millis JS, Biles J, Chalmers R. Pharmacists for the future: the report of the Study Commission on Pharmacy. Ann Arbor, MI: Health Adm Press. 1975.

Beardsley RS. Communication skills development in colleges of pharmacy. Am J Pharm Educ. 2001;65:307-314.

Hanya M, Yonei H, Kurono S, Kamei H. Development of reflective thinking in pharmacy students to improve their communication with patients through a process of role-playing, video reviews, and transcript creation. Curr Pharm Teach Learn, 2014;6(1):122-129. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2013.09.009

Chereson RS, Bilger R, Mohr S, Wuller C. Design of a pharmaceutical care laboratory: a survey of practitioners. Am J Pharm Educ. 2005;69(1):3. https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/aj690103

Tsingos C, Bosnic-Anticevich S, Smith L. Reflective practice and its implications for pharmacy education. Am J Pharm Educ. 2014;78(1):18. https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe78118

Taglieri CA, Crosby SJ, Ferullo JW. Implementation of a Communication Skills Laboratory. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2014;6(6):773-781.

Hess R, Hagemeier NE, Blackwelder R, Rose D, Ansari N, Branham T. Teaching communication skills to medical and pharmacy students through a blended learning course. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016;80(4):64. https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80464

Nunes-da-Cunha I, Arguello B, Martinez FM, Fernandez-Limos F. A Comparison of Patient-Centered Care in Pharmacy Curricula in the United States and Europe. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016;80(5):83. https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80583

Soares L, Boff PR, Valgas C, Leite S. Educação farmacêutica e identidade profissional. In: Cordeiro BC, Leite SSN. 2 ed. Itajaí: Univali, 2008.

Brasil. Conselho Nacional de Educação. Resolução nº 2, de 19 de fevereiro de 2002. Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do curso de Graduação em Farmácia. Diário Oficial da União 04 mar 2002; Seção 1.

Rocha CE, Bispo ML, Santos ACO, Mesquita AR, Brito GC, Lyra Junior, DP. Assessment of community pharmacists’ counseling practices with simulated patients who have minor illness: a pilot study. Simul Healthc. 2015;10(4):227-238. https://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SIH.0000000000000100

Mesquita AR, de Oliveira Sá DA, Santos AP, de Almeida Neto A, Lyra DP Jr. Assessment of pharmacist’s recommendation of non-prescription medicines in Brazil: a simulated patient study. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013;35(4):647-655. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-013-9787-7

Obreli-Neto PR, Pereira LR, Guidoni CM, de Oliveira Baldoni A, Marusic S, de Lyra-Júnior DP, de Almeida KL, Pazete AC, do Nascimento JD, Kos M, Girotto E, Cuman RK. Use of simulated patients to evaluate combined oral contraceptive dispensing practices of community pharmacists. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e79875. https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0079875

Santos AP, Mesquita AR, Oliveira KS, Lyra Jr DP. Assessment of community pharmacists' counselling skills on headache management by using the simulated patient approach: a pilot study. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2013;11(1):3-7. https://dx.doi.org/10.4321/s1886-36552013000100002

Brasil. Conselho Nacional de Educação. Resolução nº 6, de 19 de outubro de 2017. Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais do Curso de Graduação em Farmácia e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial da União; 2017, Seção 1.

Amorim ELC, Lyra Junior DP, Oliveira MAC. Aconselhamento ao paciente: uma proposta de inclusão no currículo farmacêutico. Infarma. 1999;10:47-49.

Lyra Junior DP, Rocha CE, Abriata JP, Gimenes FR, Gonzalez MM, Pelá IR. Influence of Pharmaceutical Care intervention and communication skills on the improvement of pharmacotherapeutic outcomes with elderly Brazilian outpatients. Patient Educ Couns. 2007;68(2):186-192. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2007.06.004

Lyra Junior DP, Sá Barreto LCL, Oliveira MAC, Oliveira ATC, Santana D. Atenção Farmacêutica: paradigma da globalização. Infarma. 2000;12:76-79.

Galato D, Modolon GA, Formentin TF, Vieira, AC. Exame clínico objetivo estruturado (ECOE): uma experiência de ensino por meio de simulação do atendimento farmacêutico. Interface Comunicação Saúde Educação. 2011;15(36):309-319.

Mesquita AR, Souza WM, Boaventura TC, Barros IM, Antoniolli AR, Silva WB, Lyra Júnior DP. The effect of active learning methodologies on the teaching of pharmaceutical care in a Brazilian pharmacy faculty. PLoS One. 2015;10(5):e0123141. https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0123141

Brasil. Lei Nº 10.861, de 14 de Abril de 2004. Institui o Sistema Nacional de Avaliação da Educação Superior - SINAES e dá outras providências.; 2004:1-5.

Kimberlin CL. Communicating with patients: skills assessment in US colleges of pharmacy. Am J Pharm Educ. 2006;70(3):67.

Schwartzman E, Chung EP, Sakharkar P, Law AV. Instruction and assessment of student communication skills in US and Canadian pharmacy curricula. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2013;5(6):508-517. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2013.07.001

Brazilian Federal Pharmacy Council. Resolução n°. 585, de 29 de agosto de 2013. Regulamenta as atribuições clínicas do farmacêutico e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial da União, Poder Executivo, Brasília, DF, 25 set. 2013a. Seção 1, p. 186–188.

Olsson E, Ingman P, Ahmed B, Sporrong, SK. Pharmacist–patient communication in Swedish community pharmacies. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2014;10(1):149-155. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2013.03.001

Cantwell BM, Ramirez AJ. Doctor-patient communication: a study of junior house officers. Med Educ. 1997;31(1):17-21. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.1997.tb00037.x

Roter DL, Stewart M, Putnam SM, Lipkin M Jr, Stiles W, Inui TS. Communication patterns of primary care physicians. JAMA. 1997;277(4):350-356. https://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03540280088045

Svensberg K, Björnsdottir I, Wallman A, Sporrong SK. Nordic Pharmacy Schools' Experience in Communication Skills Training. Am J Pharm Educ. 2017;81(9):6005. https://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6005

Van Dalen J, Kerkhofs E, van Knippenberg-Van Den Berg BW, van Den Hout HA, Scherpbier AJJ A, Van der Vleuten CPM. Longitudinal and concentrated communication skills programmes: two dutch medical schools compared. Adv Health Sci Educ. 2002;7(1):29-40.

Deveugele M, Derese A, De Maesschalck S, Willems S, Van Driel M, De Maeseneer J. Teaching communication skills to medical students, a challenge in the curriculum?. Patient Educ Couns. 2005;58(3):265-270. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2005.06.004

Leonardo CG, Ruiz-Moral R, Caballero F, Cavaco A, Moore P, Dupuy LP, Pithon-Cyrino A, Cortés MT, Gorostegui M, Loureiro E, Fontcuberta JMB, Duarte LC, Kretzr L, Arrighi E, Jovell A. A Latin American, Portuguese and Spanish consensus on a core communication curriculum for undergraduate medical education. BMC Med Educ. 2016 Mar 28;16:99. https://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-016-0610-8

Kiessling C, Dieterich A, Fabry G, Holzer H, Langewitz W, Mullinghaus M, Pruskil S, Scheffer S, Schubert S. Communication and social competency in medical education in German speaking countries: the Basel consensus statement. Results of a Delphi Study. Patient Educ Couns. 2010;81(2):259-266. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2010.01.017

Von Fragstein M, Silverman J, Cushing A, Quilligan S, Salisbury H, Wiskin C. UK Council for Clinical Communication Skills Teaching in Undergraduate Medical Education. UK consensus statement on the content of communication curricula in undergraduate medical education. Med Educ. 2008;42(11):1100-1107. https://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2923.2008.03137.x

Makoul G. Essential elements of communication in medical encounters: the Kalamazoo consensus statement. Acad Med. 2001;76(4):390-393.

Makoul G, Schofield T. Communication teaching and assessment in medical education: an international consensus statement. Patient Educ Couns. 1999;37(2):191-195. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0738-3991(99)00023-3

Bachmann C, Abramovitch H, Barbu CG, Cavaco AM, Elorza RD, Haak R, Loureiro E, Ratajska A, Silverman J, Winterburn S, Rosenbaum M. A European consensus on learning objectives for a core communication curriculum in health care professions. Patient Educ Couns. 2013;93(1):18-26. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2012.10.016

Published
2019-03-19
How to Cite
1.
Araujo DC, Santos JS, Barros IM, Cavaco AM, Mesquita AR, Lyra DP. Communication skills in Brazilian pharmaceutical education: a documentary analysis. Pharm Pract (Granada) [Internet]. 2019Mar.19 [cited 2019Nov.14];17(1):1395. Available from: https://pharmacypractice.org/journal/index.php/pp/article/view/1395
Section
Original Research

Most read articles by the same author(s)