Willingness to pay for a pharmacist’s dispensing service: a cross-sectional pilot study in the state of Penang, Malaysia
Objective: The aim of this pilot study was to assess the value of the dispensing service of pharmacists from the general public’s perspective using the contingent valuation technique in the State of Penang, Malaysia.
Methods: Participants were conveniently sampled from malls and were given a self-completed questionnaire that collected the patient’s demographic information and their knowledge about the pharmacist’s dispensing service. They were then presented with a description of the pharmacist’s dispensing service, the risk of medication errors in prescriptions and their consequences, and the risk reduction of medication errors associated with pharmacist intervention. The willingness to pay (WTP) of the participants was later assessed using a contingent valuation interview that asked the likelihood and maximum amount they were willing to pay.
Results: In the study, 100 people participated, and 57% were aged between 18 and 35 years. Of these participants, 51% were women, and 46% of them earned more than 1000 MYR (285.71USD) per month. In addition, 8% of the participants had never visited a community pharmacy. Finally, 67% of the participants were willing to pay for the pharmacists’ dispensing service, and the median amount that the participants were willing to pay was 10 MYR (2.86USD). The WTP amount was moderately correlated with their knowledge of the community pharmacist’s dispensing services (r=0.377, p=0.02).
Conclusion: Generally, the public valued the pharmacist’s dispensing service. Their acceptance can be further improved by educating the public on the role of the pharmacist.
2. Wiedenmayer K, Summers RS, Mackie CA, Gous AGS, Everard M. Developing pharmacy practice: a focus on patient care handbook - 2006 edition. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006 [cited 2008 2 October]; Available from: http://www.who.int/medicines/publications/WHO_PSM_PAR_2006.5.pdf.
3. Junzoh W. Effect of separation of medical dispensary services. JCER Researcher Report. 2004;36.
4. Department of Statistics. Statistics handbook Malaysia 2007. Putrajaya: Department of Statistics; 2007.
5. Silva RD, Baland D. No decision to stop doctors from dispensing medicine. The New Straits Times; 2008 [cited 2009 2 Feb]; Available from: http://www.mma.org.my/Portals/0/No%20decision%20to%20stop%20doctors%20from%20dispensing%20medicine.300308.pdf.
6. Chee HL, Barraclough S, editors. Health care in Malaysia: the dynamics of provision, financing and access. Oxon: Routledge; 2007.
7. Huttin C. A critical review of the remuneration systems for pharmacists. Health Policy. 1996;36(1):53-68.
8. Suh DC. Consumers' willingness to pay for pharmacy services that reduce risk of medication-related problems. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000;40(6):818-827.
9. Barner JC, Branvold A. Patients' willingness to pay for pharmacist-provided menopause and hormone replacement therapy consultationsâ‹†. Res Soc Admin Pharm.. 2005;1(1):77-100.
10. Drummond MF, O'Brien B, Stoddart GL, Torrance GW. Methods for the economic evaluation of health care programmes. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1997.
11. Bala MV, Mauskopf JA, Wood LL. Willingness to pay as a measure of health benefits. PharmacoEconomics. 1999;15(1):9-18.
12. Hilker H, Taylor N. Causes, identification, and reduction of medication errors: focus on the pharmacy perspective. Walgreen Health Initiatives; 2006 [cited 2008 1 September]; Available from: https://webapp.walgreens.com/cePharmacy/viewpdf?fileName=mederrors.pdf.
13. Do not waver from plan to separate dispensing rights. Consumer Association of Penang; 2008 [cited 2008 21 December]; Available from: http://en.cap.org.my/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=236&Itemid=3.
14. Klose T. The contingent valuation method in health care. Health Policy. 1999;47(2):97-123.
15. Larson RA. Patients' willingness to pay for pharmaceutical care. J Am Pharm Assoc (Wash). 2000;40(5):618-624.
16. Kartman B, Andersson F, Johannesson M. Willingness to pay for reductions in angina pectoris attacks. Med Decis Making. 1996;16(3):248-253.
17. Lang HC. Economic grand rounds: patients' and caregivers' willingness to pay for a cure for schizophrenia in Taiwan. Psychiatr Serv. 2005;56(2):149-151.
The authors hereby transfer, assign, or otherwise convey to Pharmacy Practice: (1) the right to grant permission to republish or reprint the stated material, in whole or in part, without a fee; (2) the right to print pr epublish copies for free distribution or sale; and (3) the right to republish the stated material in any format (electronic or printed). In addition, the undersigned affirms that the article described above has not previously been published, in whole or part, is not subject to copyright or other rights except by the author(s), and has not been submitted for publication elsewhere, except as communicated in writing to Pharmacy Practice with this document.
Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC-ND) that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
Author Self-Archiving Policy
Pharmacy Practice permits and encourages authors to post and archive the final pdf of the articles submitted to the journal on personal websites or institutional repositories after publication, while providing bibliographic details that credit its publication in this journal.