The variations of selected serum cytokines involved in cytokine Storm after Omega-3 daily supplements: A Randomized Clinical Trial in Jordanians with vitamin D deficiency

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Rafeef AL Khaled
Jehad F. Alhmoud
Reem Issa
Heba A. Khader
Beisan A. Mohammad
Ahmad R. Alsayed
Khalid Abu Khadra
Maha Habash
Ahmad Aljaberi
Luai Hasoun
Mahmoud S. Abu-Samak
Ibrahim mosleh


Omega-3, unsaturated fatty acid, cytokine storm, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α


The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of supplementing unsaturated free fatty acids (n-3FA) on the levels of specific cytokines associated with cytokine storm in the blood of 72 Jordanian individuals (both men and women) who had insufficient vitamin D. The study was conducted using a randomized controlled design (RCT). Individuals eligible for the study were randomly assigned to either the n-3FA supplemented (intervention) group or the non-supplemented (control) group. The intervention group received 1,000 mg of wild salmon and fish oil complex, which is equivalent to 300 mg of n-3FA, for a duration of eight weeks, while the control group did not. Blood tests to assess tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), lipid profile, and fasting blood sugar were conducted at baseline and after ten weeks (with a two-week washout period). Additionally, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels were measured. Our research indicates that taking n-3FA supplements significantly raised IL-1 β, IL-6, and IL-10 levels compared to their initial levels. However, TNF-α levels did not show any significant changes. The interesting results of this randomized controlled trial could be due to a possible harmful effect of n-3FA supplementation during cytokine storms (CS), specifically on IL-6. Therefore, additional clinical studies are needed in the target patients during cytokine storm to determine if this supplement could affect the treatment with IL-6 antagonists.

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