Assessing the impact of mobile-based interventions provided by pharmacists on glycemic control and diabetes related distress in adolescent patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan

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Nadia Hussain
Amal Hussain H.I. Haddad
Saima Abbass


diabetes mellitus, type 1 diabetes mellitus, smartphone, applications


Background: Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by impaired insulin secretion, insulin resistance or both. Challenges in glycemic control for T1DM adolescents include hypoglycemic episodes and keeping the HbA1c within target range. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of using mobile based applications to improve glycemic control, in terms of lowering HbA1c and reducing the number of hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic episodes in adolescents with T1DM in Pakistan, South Asia. We hypothesized that Type 1 diabetic adolescents who used mobile based applications, with counseling provided by pharmacists, to track their glucose would have a beneficial impact on their glycaemic control indicated by lower haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) values and decreased number of hospital admissions linked to hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic conditions. The Diabetes Distress Scale (DDS) was to assess the emotional well-being of all participants. Methods: A total of 112 patients with T1DM in a tertiary-care hospital specific to diabetes were selected as the study population. This study was conducted from January 1, 2023 to June 1, 2023. Of the 112 patients, 56 were randomly assigned to the mobile app using MTG and 56 were assigned to the routine management RTG group. IBM SPSS 25.0 software was used for descriptive statistics, t tests, chi-square tests, and correlation analyses. Haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and number of admissions to the hospital for hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic episodes was the effectiveness parameter decided upon. Results: When compared to the RGT group, participants in the MTG group was associated with significant decreases in HbA1c values (P < 0.03), lower number of severe hypoglycaemic (3±1.9 vs. 9±1.4, p 0.02), and ketoacidotic episodes (5±2.0 vs. 16±1.4, p = 0.05). The MTG also had significantly improved diabetes distress levels in comparison to the RTG. Conclusion: Our study showed a significant association between utilizing mobile based applications and glycaemic control and emotional well-being in adolescents with T1DM. Conclusion: Compared with the routine management that is the current model of treatment, the MTG group for adolescents with T1DM had improved glycemic control and enhanced emotional well-being.

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