Practice, competency and attitude toward weight management service and the barriers for its implementation in the community pharmacy setting

Main Article Content

Anan S. Jarab
Walid Al-Qerem
Dua’a F. Mubarak
Shrouq R. Abu Heshmeh
Abdallah Y. Naser
Yazid N. Al Hamarneh
Amal Akour


community pharmacy, weight management, competency, attitudes, practice, barriers


Background: The World Health Organization has estimated that the prevalence of overweight and obesity in Jordan is up to 70% and 40% respectively. Identifying the community pharmacist’s role is required to develop effective interventions for weight management. Objective: To evaluate practice, competence, and attitudes toward weight management service (WMS), and to explore the barriers associated with its implementation at the community pharmacy setting. Methods: The present cross-sectional study utilized a validated Face to face self-administered questionnaire, which was completed by community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians in different areas across Jordan. In addition to the socio-demographic variables, the study questionnaire evaluated pharmacists’ practice, competency, attitudes, and the barriers for weight management services provision. Results: The participants showed inadequate practice and competency, but positive attitude towards WMS. Regression results revealed that having one to five years of work experience (OR= 2.419, 95% CI: 1.032:5.671, P<0.05), positive attitude (OR= 2.168, 95% CI: 1.285:3.656, P<0.01), and high competency (OR=3.377, 95% CI: 2.011:5.671, P<0.01) were associated with improved practice. On the other hand, having a Doctor of Pharmacy degree (OR=3.830, 95% CI: 1.259:11.649, P<0.05), and positive attitude (OR=3.590, 95% CI: 2.162:5.962, P<0.01) were associated with increased competency. Male participants showed unfavourable attitude towards the provision of WMS when compared to females (OR=0.597, 95%CI: 0.366:0.975, P<0.05), while having more than 6 years of work experience (OR=2.419, 95%CI: 1.032:5.671, P<0.05) was associated with improved attitude. Lack of patients’ recognition of obesity as a disease (55.8%), lack of private consultation area in the pharmacy (53.1%), and inability to follow-up the patients (53%) were the most reported barriers to implement these WMS. Conclusion: Despite the frequent provision of WMS and the positive attitudes toward this service, the study participants did not demonstrate enough competency and reported several barriers to provide WMS.

Abstract 67 | PDF Downloads 37


1. Al-Awwad NJ, Ayoub J, Barham R, et al. Review of the Nutrition Situation in Jordan: Trends and Way Forward. Nutrients. 2021;14(1).
2. Okati-Aliabad H, Ansari-Moghaddam A, Kargar S, et al. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight among Adults in the Middle East Countries from 2000 to 2020: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Obes. 2022;2022. https://doi. org/10.1155/2022/8074837
3. Unamuno X, Izaguirre M, Gómez-Ambrosi J, et al. Increase of the Adiponectin/Leptin Ratio in Patients with Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. Nutrients. 2019;11(9).
4. Gruzdeva O, Borodkina D, Uchasova E, et al. Localization of fat depots and cardiovascular risk 11 Medical and Health Sciences 1103 Clinical Sciences. Lipids Health Dis. 2018;17(1):1-9.
5. Bani Salameh A, Al-sheyab N, El-hneiti M, et al. Effectiveness of a 12‐week school‐based educational preventive program on weight and fasting blood glucose in “at‐risk” adolescents of type 2 diabetes mellitus: Randomised controlled trial. Int J Nurs Pract. 2017;23(3).
6. Krupa-Kotara K, Dakowska D. Impact of obesity on risk of cancer. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2021;29(1):38-44. https://doi. org/10.21101/cejph.a5913
7. Andolfi C, Fisichella PM. Epidemiology of Obesity and Associated Comorbidities. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2018;28(8):919-24.
8. Baillot A, Chenail S, Polita NB, et al. Physical activity motives, barriers, and preferences in people with obesity: A systematic review. PLoS One. 2021;16(6):e0253114.
9. Kim JY. Optimal Diet Strategies for Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance. J Obes Metab Syndr. 2021;30(1):20-31.
10. Markovic TP, Proietto J, Dixon JB, et al. The Australian Obesity Management Algorithm: A simple tool to guide the management of obesity in primary care. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2022;16(5):353-63. ORCP.2022.08.003
11. Gregory PAM, Austin Z. Understanding the psychology of trust between patients and their community pharmacists. Can Pharm J (Ott). 2021;154(2):120-8.
12. Hijazi MA, Shatila H, El-Lakany A, Al Rifai H, Aboul-Ela M, Naja et al. Role of community pharmacists in weight management: Results of a national study in Lebanon. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020;20(1):386-97. 05258-7
13. Almukdad S, Zaghloul N, Awaisu A, et al. Exploring the Role of Community Pharmacists in Obesity and Weight Management in Qatar : A Mixed-Methods Study. Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021;14:2771-87.
14. Verma RK, Paraidathathu T, Taha NA, et al. Attitudes, practices, and barriers of Malaysian community pharmacists toward provision of weight management services. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:1-11.
15. Krska J, Lovelady C, Connolly D, et al. Community pharmacy contribution to weight management: identifying opportunities. Int J Pharm Pract. 2010;18(1):7-12.
16. Sarayani A, Rashidian A, Gholami K, et al. Efficacy of continuing education in improving pharmacists’ competencies for providing weight management service: three-arm randomized controlled trial. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2012;32(3):163-73.
17. Verma RK, Chong WW, Taha NA, et al. Impact of an Educational Training Program on the Knowledge , Attitude , and Perceived Barriers of Community Pharmacists Towards Obesity and Overweight Management in Malaysia. Front Public Heal. 2021;9:720939.
18. OECD. OECD Skills Outlook 2013 First Results from the Survey of Adult Skills [Internet]. Paris; 2013 [cited 2022 Dec 21]. Available from:
19. Elkhalifa AEO, Humida FHE, Hussien MAS, et al. Assessment of Knowledge , Attitudes and Practice of Community Pharmacists towards Weight Management in Khartoum State , Sudan. J Adv Med Med Res. 2019;31(8):1-7. JAMMR/2019/v31i830312
20. Blebil AQ, Saw PS, Dujaili JA, et al. Using COM-B model in identifying facilitators, barriers and needs of community pharmacists in implementing weight management services in Malaysia: a qualitative study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2022;22(1):1-12.
21. Newlands RS, Watson MC, Lee AJ. The provision of current and future Healthy Weight Management (HWM) services from community pharmacies: a survey of community pharmacists’ attitudes, practice and future possibilities. Int J Pharm Pract. 2011;19(2):106-14.
22. Aksoy N, Erdogan NG. Perception of community pharmacist toward weight loss products: Kahramanmaraş city sample. Ankara Univ Eczac Fak Derg. 2022;46(3):955-66.
23. Nowicka P. Dietitians and exercise professionals in a childhood obesity treatment team. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2005;94(448):23-9.
24. Wagner EH. The role of patient care teams in chronic disease management. BMJ. 2000;320(7234):569-72. https://doi. org/10.1136/BMJ.320.7234.569
25. Carvajal MJ, Popovici I, Hardigan PC. Gender differences in the measurement of pharmacists’ job satisfaction. Hum Resour Health. 2018;16(1).
26. Awad A, Waheedi M. Community Pharmacists role in obesity treatment in Kuwait: A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:863.
27. Jordan M, Harmon J. Pharmacist interventions for obesity: improving treatment adherence and patient outcomes. Integr Pharm Res Pract. 2015;4:79-89.
28. O’Donnell DC, Brown CM, Dastani HB. Barriers to counseling patients with obesity: A study of Texas community pharmacists. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2006;46(4):465-71. Https://