Haptoglobin Phenotypes in School-age Children Infected with Schistosoma haematobium: A case-control study

Main Article Content

Asim Ahmed Elnour https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4143-7810
Zeinab Eltoum Nasur https://orcid.org/0009-0000-4240-5119
Hani Yousif Zaki
Kamal Eldin Ahmed Salih
Fahad T. Alsulami https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8989-7958
Yousef Saeed Alqarni
Nadia Al Mazrouei https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1339-9730
Abdulla Al Amoodi https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5248-9598
Maisoun Alkaabi https://orcid.org/0009-0009-0013-4221
Khalid Awad Al-Kubaisi https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4260-1117
Semira Abdi Beshir https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4990-4783
Vineetha Menon https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2030-0962
Kishore Ganana Sam https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6537-2786
Israa Yousif El Khidir https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8674-3603

Keywords

schistosoma haematobium, haptoglobin, school-age children, haptoglobin phenotypes, haptoglobin 2-2

Abstract

Background: Acute phase proteins (APPs), including haptoglobin (Hp), are a large and varied group of plasma proteins that can be used as biomarkers for disease diagnosis/detection/severity. Objective: The main objective was to assess the levels of haptoglobin (Hp) in serum and detect Hp phenotypes using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in 100 school-aged children infected with Schistosoma haematobium compared with 60 healthy control. Methods: We conducted a case-control study on 160 schoolchildren (ages 9-15 years) recruited from Tayba Eltejania village, Sinar state, Sudan. Unrelated children with Schistosoma haematobium (case group 100) and unrelated healthy children (control group 60) were included, while those with both Schistosoma types were excluded. The enrolled subjects were evaluated for the levels of Hp and its phenotypes as early markers for disease severity. ELISA quantified biochemical analysis for the serum Hp level. Hp phenotypes were determined, and their frequency was compared between cases and controls. Results: The Hp 2-1 was the highest frequency among cases and controls 72/143 (50.3%), followed by Hp 2-2 (28%), while Hp 1-1 phenotype was 22%. The Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2 frequency did not differ significantly between cases and controls, considering the Hp 1-1 as the reference group. Multiple comparisons were executed between Hp phenotypes; the differences between these groups were not statistically different. The disease severity was set according to the egg count (Group I: moderate infection ≤ 35/10 ml, Group II: severe infection ≥ 36/10 ml), the Hp 2-2 was four times more frequent in cases with severe infection considering Hp 1-1 as the reference phenotype (OR=3.85, 95% CI: 1.044-14.24). Confirming the result, Hp 2-2 was significantly associated with disease severity than Hp 1-1 and Hp 2-1 (OR= 3.77 95% CI: 1.39-10.20). Conclusion: There was evident that the egg count increased in subjects with Hp 2-2 indicating severe infection.

Abstract 122 | PDF Downloads 169

References

1. Adinortey MB. Haptoglobin polymorphism and association with complications in Ghanaian type 2 diabetic patients. Indian J Clin Biochem.2011;26(4):366-372. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12291-011-0141-3
2. Altman NS. An introduction to kernel and nearest-neighbor nonparametric regression. The American Statistician. 1992;46(3):175-185.
3. Anderson GD. Haptoglobin phenotype and apolipoprotein E polymorphism: relationship to posttraumatic seizures and neuropsychological functioning after traumatic brain injury. Epilepsy Behav 2009;16(3):501-506. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. yebeh.2009.08.025
4. Arredouani M. Haptoglobin directly affects T cells and suppresses T helper cell type 2 cytokine release. Immunology. 2003;108(2):144-151. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2567.2003.01569.x
5. Asleh R. Genetically determined heterogeneity in hemoglobin scavenging and susceptibility to diabetic cardiovascular disease. Circ Res 2003;92(11):1193-1200. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.res.0000076889.23082.f1
6. Atkinson SH. The haptoglobin 2-2 genotype is associated with a reduced incidence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children on the coast of Kenya. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44(6):802-809. https://doi.org/10.1086/511868
7. Bichler KH. EAU guidelines for the management of urogenital schistosomiasis. Eur Urol 2006;49(6):998-1003. https://doi. org/10.1016/j.eururo.2006.02.022
8. Brouwers A. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein, iron stores, and haptoglobin polymorphism. Atherosclerosis. 2004;176(1):189- 195. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2004.05.005
9. Calderoni DR. Haptoglobin phenotype appears to affect the pathogenesis of American trypanosomiasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100(3):213-221. https://doi.org/10.1179/136485906x86356
10. Carter K, Worwood M. Haptoglobin: a review of the major allele frequencies worldwide and their association with diseases. Int J Lab Hematol.2007;29(2):92-110. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-553x.2007.00898.x
11. Delanghe JR, De Buyzere ML. Development of an ELISA for the determination of the major haptoglobin phenotype: an interesting technical development and its potential consequences. Clin Chem. 2004;50(11):1972-3. https://doi.org/10.1373/ clinchem.2004.040774
12. Eaton JW. Haptoglobin: a natural bacteriostat. Science. 1982;215(4533):691-3. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7036344
13. Elagib AA. Association of the haptoglobin phenotype (1-1) with falciparum malaria in Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 1998;92(3):309-311. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0035-9203(98)91025-2
14. Graversen JH CD163: a signal receptor scavenging haptoglobin-hemoglobin complexes from plasma. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;34(4):309-314. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1357-2725(01)00144-3
15. Inobaya MT. Prevention and control of schistosomiasis: a current perspective. Res Rep Trop Med. 2014(5):65-75. https://doi. org/10.2147/rrtm.s44274
16. Kahama AI. Detection and quantification of soluble egg antigen in urine of Schistosoma haematobium-infected children from Kenya. Am J Trop Med Hyg.1998;59(5):769-74. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.1998.59.769
17. Kaminskaia GO. Interrelations between genetically determined haptoglobin types and the course of the postoperative period in chronic forms of pulmonary tuberculosis. Probl Tuberk.1989;(8):3-7.
18. Langlois MR, Delanghe JR. Biological and clinical significance of haptoglobin polymorphism in humans. Clin Chem. 1996;42(10):1589-1600.
19. Lee PL. Relationships of Haptoglobin Phenotypes with Systemic Inflammation and the Severity of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Sci Rep. 2019;9(1):189. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-37406-9
20. MacConnachie A. Schistosomiasis. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2012;42(1):47-49;quiz 50.
21. MacKellar M, Vigerust DJ. Role of Haptoglobin in Health and Disease: A Focus on Diabetes. Clin Diabetes 2016;34(3):148-7. https://doi.org/10.2337/diaclin.34.3.148
22. Melamed-Frank M. Structure-function analysis of the antioxidant properties of haptoglobin. Blood 2001;98(13):3693-8. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.v98.13.3693
23. Moestrup SK, Moller HJ. CD163: a regulated hemoglobin scavenger receptor with a role in the anti-inflammatory response. Ann Med. 2004;36(5):347-54. https://doi.org/10.1080/07853890410033171
24. Mogarekar MR, Hampe MH. Haptoglobin2-2 phenotype is an additional risk factor of retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian Journal of Human Genetics. 2013;19(2):154. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-6866.116111
25. Mundaray Fernandez N, Fernandez-Mestre M. The role of haptoglobin genotypes in Chagas disease. Dis Markers. 2014:793646. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/793646
26. Mutapi F. Immuno-epidemiology of human Schistosoma haematobium infection: preferential IgG3 antibody responsiveness to a recombinant antigen dependent on age and parasite burden. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:96. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471- 2334-6-96
27. Nelwan ML. Schistosomiasis: Life Cycle, Diagnosis, and Control. Current therapeutic research, clinical and experimental. 2019; 91:5–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.curtheres.2019.06.001
28. Nmorsi O. Evaluation of CD4(+)/CD8(+) status and urinary tract infections associated with urinary schistosomiasis among some rural Nigerians. Afr Health Sci 2005;5(2):126-130. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc1831910/
29. Perdijk O. Haptoglobin phenotype prevalence and cytokine profiles during Plasmodium falciparum infection in Dogon and Fulani ethnic groups living in Mali. Malar J.2013;12:432. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-12-432
30. Philippidis P. Hemoglobin scavenger receptor CD163 mediates interleukin-10 release and heme oxygenase-1 synthesis: antiinflammatory monocyte-macrophage responses in vitro, in resolving skin blisters in vivo, and after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. Circ Res. 2004;94(1):119-6. https://doi.org/10.1161/01.res.0000109414.78907.f9
31. Sadrzadeh SM, Bozorgmehr J. Haptoglobin phenotypes in health and disorders. Am J Clin Pathol. 2004;121:S97-4. https:// pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/15298155/
32. Santoro C. A simplified procedure for haptoglobin subtyping. Human genetics. 1982;60(3):287-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/ bf00303022
33. Santoro C. Distribution of haptoglobin subtypes in continental Italy and Sardinia. Human heredity 1983;33(3):195-8. https:// doi.org/10.1159/000153376
34. Santos LL, Santos J, Gouveia MJ. Urogenital Schistosomiasis-History, Pathogenesis, and Bladder Cancer. J Clin Med. 2021;10(2):205. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10020205
35. Shih AW. Haptoglobin testing in hemolysis: measurement and interpretation. Am J Hematol. 2014;89(4):443-7. https://doi. org/10.1002/ajh.23623
36. Song IU. Association between serum haptoglobin and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. Intern Med. 2015;54(5):453-7. https://doi.org/10.2169/internalmedicine.54.2876
37. Staals J. Haptoglobin phenotype correlates with the extent of cerebral deep white matter lesions in hypertensive patients. Curr Neurovasc Res. 2010;7(1):1-5. https://doi.org/10.2174/156720210790820163
38. Wassell J, Keevil B. A new method for haptoglobin phenotyping. Ann Clin Biochem 1999;36(5):609-12. https://doi. org/10.1177/000456329903600507
39. Yousif AS, Elagib AA. Haptoglobin Phenotypes and Susceptibility to Schistosoma Parasites Infection in Central Sudan. Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2017;9(1):e2017042. https://doi.org/10.4084/mjhid.2017.042

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>