Main Article Content
Pharmacy, Educational assessment, Neuropsychiatry, Educational activities, Curriculum
Backgound: Neuropsychiatric disease is common globally. It is vital train pharmacists to provide patient-centered care in neuropsychiatry. Objective: To evaluate the impact of student-created vignettes on their knowledge and abilities to assess and manage patients with neuropsychiatric diseases, and to evaluate their experience. Methods: Several learning/assessment methodologies within the Therapeutics III course were utilized, including a major assignment of student-created vignettes about neuropsychiatric diseases. A framework guided student in creating the vignettes; identifying conception, design, and administration. Created vignettes were evaluated based on a validated scoring guide. Mean scores in various assessments were compared using Spearman’s rank-order correlation. Students evaluated their experience on a 5-point Likert-type scale of 1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree. Results: Overall, students’ performance in the assignment was excellent, average score = 92%. A significant correlation existed between the vignette assignment and assessments covering neuropsychiatric disease. Most students agreed they were made aware of what needed to be done (95%), that the instructions about elements to include, designs, and delivery mechanisms were enough (93.4%, 86.7%, and 93.4%, respectively). Most students agreed that developing the vignette was stimulating, engaging and enjoyable (93.3% and 90%, 88.3% respectively). Students stated they felt confident in their scientific background knowledge (88.3%), in employing communication strategies with patients (85%) and their families (83.3%), and in their confidence in promoting and supporting patients with the diseases. Conclusion: Students attained high scores in the vignette assignment and reported positive experience, satisfaction and confidence. Best practices guided students in creating and evaluating the vignettes, which made them an effective learning/assessment tool.
2. White PD, Rickards H, Zeman AZ. Time to end the distinction between mental and neurological illnesses.BMJ. 2012;344(1):e3454. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.e3454
3. US leading categories of diseases/disorders. National Institute of Mental Health. www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/disability/us-leading-categories-of-diseases-disorders.shtml. Accessed August 2, 2022.
4. Total expenditures for the five most costly medical conditions (1996 vs 2006). National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/cost/total-expenditures-for the-five-most-costlymedical-conditions-1996-vs-2006.shtml.
Accessed August 2, 2022.
5. The World Health Report 2001: Mental disorders affect One in four people. World Health Organization; 2021. https://www.who.int/news/item/28-09-2001-the-world-health-report-2001-mental-disorders-affect-one-in-four-people. Accessed August
6. Neuro Number 2019. The Neurological Alliance; 2019. https://www.neural.org.uk/assets/pdfs/neuro-numbers-2019.pdf . Accessed August 2, 2022.
7. GBD 2016 Neurology Collaborators. Global, regional, and national burden of neurological disorders, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. Lancet Neurol. 2019;18(5):459-480. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-
8. Chisholm D, Sweeny K, Sheehan P, et al. Scaling-up treatment of depression and anxiety: a global return on investment analysis. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016;3(5):415-424. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2215-0366(16)30024-4
9. Siu AL, Bibbins-Domingo K, Grossman DC, et al. Screening for Depression in Adults. JAMA. 2016;315(4):380-386. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2015.18392
10. International Pharmaceutical Federation. Intervention on provisional agenda item 13.3. Draft comprehensive mental health action plan 2013 -2020 The Hague: International Pharmaceutical Federation. https://www.fip.org/files/fip/WHO/
11. Kwon J, Ledvina D, Newton M, et al. Oncology pharmacy education and training in the United States Schools of Pharmacy. Curr Pharm Teach Learn. 2015;7(4):451-457. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2015.04.005
12. American Society of Consultant Pharmacists. Geriatric Pharmacy Curriculum Guide, 3rd ed. Alexandria; 2015. https://catchon.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/12/Pharmacy_Curriculum_Competency_Guide_ASCP_Final_2015.pdf Accessed August 2,
13. Dopheide JA, Bostwick JR, Goldstone LW, et al. Curriculum in Psychiatry and Neurology for Pharmacy Programs. Am J Pharm Educ. 2017;81(7):5925. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8175925
14. Skilling K, Stylianides GJ. Using vignettes in educational research: a framework for vignette construction. Int. J. Res. Method Educ. 2020;43(5):541-556. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743727x.2019.1704243
15. Bradbury-Jones C, Taylor J, Herber O. Vignette development and administration: a framework for protecting research participants. Int J Soc Res Methodol. 2014;17(4):427-440. https://doi.org/10.1080/13645579.2012.750833
16. Jeffries C, Maeder DW. Using Instructional and Assessment Vignettes to Promote Recall, Recognition, and Transfer in Educational Psychology Courses. 2006.
17. Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7). National HIV Curriculum. https://www.hiv.uw.edu/page/mental-healthscreening/gad-7. Accessed August 2, 2022
18. Patient Health Questionnaire-(PHQ-9). National HIV Curriculum. https://www.hiv.uw.edu/page/mental-health-screening/phq-9. Accessed August 2, 2022.
19. McEvoy JP, Schooler NR, Friedman E, et al. Use of psychopathology vignettes by patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and by mental health professionals to judge patients. Am J Psychiatry. 1993;150(11):1649-1653. https://doi.
20. Vanderbush RE, Kirtley J, West D. Evaluating Internet-based Multimedia Vignettes for Teaching Ophthalmic and Otic Drug Administration Techniques. Am J Pharm Educ. 2005;69(1-5):475-492. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj690464
21. Bindoff I, Ling T, Bereznicki L, et al. A Computer Simulation of Community Pharmacy Practice for Educational Use. Am J Pharm Educ. 2014;78(9):168. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe789168
22. El-Den S, Chen TF, Moles RJ, et al. Assessing Mental Health First Aid Skills Using Simulated Patients. Am J Pharm Educ. 2018;82(2):6222. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6222
23. Mostert MP. Challenges of case-based teaching. Behav Anal Today. 2007;8(4):434-442. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0100632
24. McLean SF. Case-Based Learning and its Application in Medical and Health-Care Fields: A Review of Worldwide Literature. J Med Educ Curric Dev. 2016;3. https://doi.org/10.4137/jmecd.s20377
25. Flowers SK, Vanderbush RE, Hastings JK, et al. Web-based Multimedia Vignettes in Advanced Community Pharmacy Practice Experiences. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010;74(3):39. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj740339
26. Mnatzaganian C, Fricovsky E, Best BM, et al. An Interactive, Multifaceted Approach to Enhancing Pharmacy Students’ Health Literacy Knowledge and Confidence. Am J Pharm Educ. 2017;81(2):32. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe81232
27. Arif S, Cryder B, Mazan J, et al. Using Patient Case Video Vignettes to Improve Students’ Understanding of Cross-cultural Communication. Am J Pharm Educ. 2017;81(3):56. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe81356