Patient characteristics and risk factors contributing to mortality among hospitalised patients with COVID-19 in Malaysia

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Nurul Syafiqah Othman
Nor Hidayah Mohd Taufek
Ahmad Kashfi Ab Rahman
Wirdatul Ainna Jamaluddin
Che Suraya Zin


COVID-19, mortality, risk factors, characteristics, Malaysia


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic caused a significant increase in deaths globally. However, there is a scarcity of data addressing risk factors associated with mortality among hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. This study aimed to identify the predictors of death among hospitalised COVID-19 patients in Malaysia. Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at two public hospitals in East Coast Malaysia from February 2020 to August 2021. The study included all hospitalised COVID-19 patients by extracting data from the electronic medical records focusing on patient demographics and clinical outcomes. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to evaluate association between risk factors and mortality among COVID-19 patients. Results: A total of 1060 patients were included (59% male) with median age of 41.5 years (IQR 27 – 58.5). Multivariable logistic regression showed that factors contributing to mortality of COVID-19 patients were elderly (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.06; p = 0.001), chronic kidney disease (OR, 3.75; 95% CI, 1.25, 11.27; p = 0.019), an increased point of CCI score (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.25, 2.05; p = ≤0.05), progression to severe stage (OR, 40.68; 95% CI, 17.55, 94.31; p = ≤ 0.05) and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) (OR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.16, 6.17, p = 0.021). Conclusion: Patients who were elderly, with chronic kidney disease, multiple comorbidities, progressed to severe stage and admitted to ICU were at significantly increased risk of mortality. These findings highlight the importance of implementing extra monitoring and aggressive preventive measures for high-risk patients, in order to reduce their mortality risk and improve patient outcomes.

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