A review of pharmacogenomics studies assessing the knowledge and attitudes of physicians and pharmacists across the Arab and Middle Eastern Region

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Mohammed Khattab https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4942-8978
Mohamed Baguneid https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3819-4993
Bassam R Ali https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1306-6618
Bassem Sadek https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0320-1487
Rami Beiram https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0230-9242
Bassam Atallah https://orcid.org/0000-0003-0963-802X
Amal Akour https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2789-8514
Azhar T Rahma https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8347-453X
Salahdein Aburuz https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2478-3914


Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacogenetics, Pharmacist, Physician, Knowledge, Attitude, UAE, GCC, Arab, MENA


The principal goal of pharmacogenomics (PGx) is to achieve the highest drug efficacy while maintaining a low toxicity profile. Historically, health care systems used to target treatment for all individuals with the same diagnosis using a standardized medication or dose that fits all. However, a recent pattern in medicine has emerged focusing on personalized and precision medicine. For effective implementation of PGx, there is a need for more collaborations between all the stakeholders in the healthcare system to integrate the pharmacogenetics concept into practice. When it comes to the knowledge and attitudes towards pharmacogenomics, the majority of medical professionals, including pharmacists and physicians, appear to lack appropriate knowledge and training. Across the Middle East and Arab Region, only few studies have addressed this topic. The current review objective is to shed light on pharmacists’ and physicians’ knowledge and attitudes towards PGx practice in the UAE, Arab and the Middle East region as compared to the rest of the world. Moreover, highlighting the role of the pharmacists in the application of PGx services and the educational challenges that are faced. Proposed solutions to improve the knowledge gaps will also be discussed. We also aim to provide the international readers as well as the local researchers with a summary of the trends and distribution of the results across these countries.

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