P2X and P2Y Receptor Antagonists Reduce Inflammation in ATPinduced Microglia

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Amer Imraish https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1191-2905
Tuqa Abu-Thiab https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3054-4047
Hana Hammad https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3130-1749


Microglia, P2X receptor, P2Y receptor, ATP, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α


Background: P2 receptors have been implicated in the release of neurotransmitter and pro-inflammatory cytokines due to their response to neuroexcitatory substances in the microglia. The P2X4, P2X7 and P2Y12 receptors are involved in the development of pain behavior induced by peripheral nerve injury. However, it is not known if blocking P2X4, P2X7 and P2Y12 receptors is associated with the expression and the release of interleukin-1B (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), or tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in cultured neonatal spinal cord microglia. Objective: For this reason, we examined the effects of P2X4, P2X7 and P2Y12 antagonists on the expression and the release of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in ATP-stimulated microglia. Methods: In this study, we observed the effect of A-740003, PSB-12062 and MRS 2395 (P2X4, P2X7 and P2Y12 receptors antagonist, respectively), on the expression and release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α by using real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: ATP induced the increased expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α at the level of messenger RNA (mRNA). ATP-evoked increase in IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA expression was inhibited by the P2X4 receptor antagonist A-740003 or P2X7 receptor antagonist PSB-12062, respectively. Similarly, ATP-evoked release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α was inhibited by A-740003 and PSB-12062. Furthermore, ATP-evoked increased expression of Iba-1, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA, and release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were nearly all blocked after co-administration of A-740003 plus PSB-12062. Finally, ATP-evoked increased gene expression and release of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α were also inhibited by MRS 2395 (P2Y12 antagonist). Conclusion: These observations suggest a new clue for therapeutic strategies to treat the neuro-inflammation.

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