Main Article Content
Hospital pharmacists, COVID-19, Cross-sectional
Objectives: This study investigates the hospital pharmacists’ awareness of important facts about the COVID-19 disease and their source of information, as well as their perception. Methods: This cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted from November 2020 to March 2021 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). The questionnaire was developed via electronic platform and invitations were sent to pharmacists working in private and government hospitals. A multivariate logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with awareness of COVID-19. Results: A total of 272 pharmacists submitted their responses via weblink. Many pharmacists (n=228, 84%) followed the latest COVID-19 updates on treatment and updated their information mainly through World Health Organization documents (n=151, 56%). Pharmacists working in secondary and tertiary hospitals were relatively five-times times (AOR = 4.59; 95% CI: 1.69–12.8; p-value = 0.003) and three-times (AOR = 2.93; 95% CI: 1.35–6.72; p-value = 0.008) more aware of COVID-19 than those working in primary hospitals. Pharmacists with prior adequate knowledge regarding epidemics and pandemics were twotimes more likely to have a good awareness of COVID-19 compared to those who had received none (AOR = 2.15; 95% CI: 1.09–4.35; p-value = 0.030). Conclusions: Half of the pharmacists believed that they received required education in the past about epidemics and pandemics, and many follow the recent COVID-19 updates on medicines predominantly from the WHO followed by the government awareness campaigns. Many pharmacists believed they have a key role in the management of epidemics/pandemics via their hospital pharmacy. However, this study identified certain awareness gaps regarding COVID-19, highlighting areas of improvement
2. Meo SA, Al-Khlaiwi T, Usmani AM, et al. Biological and epidemiological trends in the prevalence and mortality due to outbreaksof novel coronavirus COVID-19. J King Saud Univ Sci. 2020;32(4):2495-2499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2020.04.004
3. W H O. Coronavirus: World health organization; 2020 [Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novelcoronavirus-2019.
4. Sanders JM, Monogue ML, Jodlowski TZ, et al. Pharmacologic Treatments for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Review.
JAMA. 2020;323(18):1824-1836. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.60195. Ung COL. Community pharmacist in public health emergencies: Quick to action against the coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak.
Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020;16(4):583-586. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.02.003
6. Khan Z, Muhammad K, Ahmed A, et al. Coronavirus outbreaks: prevention and management recommendations. Drugs and Therapy Perspectives. 2020;36(5):215-217. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40267-020-00717-x
7. Madden MMH, Ball P. Pharmacy in challenging environments. Australian Journal of Pharmacy 2015;96(1164):60.
8. Basheti IA, Nassar R, Barakat M, et al. Pharmacists’ readiness to deal with the coronavirus pandemic: Assessing awareness and perception of roles. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2021;17(3):514-522. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.020
9. Wahidiyat PA, Yo EC, Wildani MM, et al. Cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude and practice towards thalassaemia
10. AlRuthia Y, Alsenaidy MA, Alrabiah HK, et al. The status of licensed pharmacy workforce in Saudi Arabia: a 2030 economic vision perspective. Hum Resour Health. 2018;16(1):28. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12960-018-0294-8
11. Manolakis PG, Skelton JB. Pharmacists’ contributions to primary care in the United States collaborating to address unmet patient care needs: the emerging role for pharmacists to address the shortage of primary care providers. Am J Pharm Educ.010;7410):S7.https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7410s7
12. Improving Pharmacist Involvement in Pandemic Influenza Planning and Response in Australia. Australian Healthcare and Hospital Association; 2018 Available at: https:// ahha.asn.au/system/files/docs/publications/summary_deeble_institute_issues_brief_ no._25.pdf, Accessed date: 07 July 2022.
13. Al-Quteimat, Amer A. SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: How can pharmacists help? Res Social Adm Pharm. 2021;17(2):480-482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.03.018
14. Li H, Zheng S, Liu F, et al. Fighting against COVID-19: Innovative strategies for clinical pharmacists. Res Social Adm Pharm.2021;17(1):1813-1818. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.003
15. Silva BB, Fegadolli C. Implementation of pharmaceutical care for older adults in the brazilian public health system: a case study and realistic evaluation. BMC Health Services Research. 2020;20(1):37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-4898-z
16. Ahmad A, Alkharfy KM, Alrabiah Z, et al. Saudi Arabia, pharmacists and COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice. 2020;13(1):41.
17. MOH Continues Activating Medication Home Delivery Service. Ministry of Health. https://www.moh.gov.sa/en/Ministry/
MediaCenter/News/Pages/News-2021-10-25-005.aspx Accessed 05 July 2022.
18. Basheti IA, El-Hajji F, Nassar R, et al. Pharmacists’ awareness of COVID-19 and perceptions of their roles, barriers, and roles of
policymakers: Exploring the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Int J Clin Pract. 2021;75(6):e14074. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14074
19. Basheti IA, Mhaidat NM, Al-Azzam S, et al. Knowledge and perceptions of pharmacists’ readiness during coronavirus pandemic:the case of United Arab Emirates. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice. 2021;14(1):102. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-021-00382-z
20. Karasneh R, Al-Azzam S, Muflih S, et al. Media’s effect on shaping knowledge, awareness risk perceptions and communicationpractices of pandemic COVID-19 among pharmacists. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy. 2021;17(1):1897-1902.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.027
21. FIP Covid-19 Information Hub. International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP). Available from https://www.fip.org/coronavirus.
Accessed 04 July 2022.
22. Five Belgian Organizations. Interim clinical guidance for adults with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 IN Belgium. 31 March 2020. Version 6. https://epidemio.wiv-isp.be/ID/Documents/Covid19/COVID-19_InterimGuidelines_ Treatment_ENG.pdfAccessed 04 July 2022.
23. Capuano A, Scavone C, Racagni G, et al. NSAIDs in patients with viral infections, including Covid-19: Victims or perpetrators?Pharmacol Res. 2020;157:104849. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104849
24. AlAbbasi HK, Thorakkattil SA, Mohiuddin SI, et al. Implementation and effectiveness of drive-through medication pick-up and home delivery services. A patient safety initiative during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Patient Safety and Risk Management. 2021;26(4):179-186.
25. Hussain R, Dawoud DM, Babar ZU. Drive-thru pharmacy services: A way forward to combat COVID-19 pandemic. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2021;17(1):1920-1924. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.07.015
26. Diri RM. The Impact of COVID-19 Outbreak on Reassessing the Need for Drive Thru Community Pharmacy: Cross-Sectional Study. J Microsc Ultrastruct. 2020;8(4):162-164. https://doi.org/10.4103/JMAU.JMAU_65_20