Incidence of oxaliplatin hypersensitivity reaction among colorectal cancer patients: A 5-year retrospective study

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Keywords

Oxaliplatin, Hypersensitivity reaction, Colorectal cancer, Risk factor

Abstract

Background: Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum compound that has efficacy against colorectal cancer. Hypersensitivity reactions during oxaliplatin infusion are a key problem during its use, with the varying incidences and deficiencies of clearly identified risk factors. Objective: To determine the incidence, severity and risk factors of oxaliplatin-related hypersensitivity reaction (HSR). Method: This retrospective study investigated 245 colorectal cancer patients (1,690 treatment cycles) receiving care at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Thai Red Cross society between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2019. The patients’ demographic data, laboratory data and clinical features suggesting hypersensitivity reactions to oxaliplatin were reviewed. The Fisher’s Exact test and unpaired t-test were used to determine the differences among patients with and without oxaliplatin HSR. The potential risk factors for oxaliplatin HSR were analyzed for statistical significance by logistic regression. Results: A total of 245 colorectal cancer patients (1,690 treatment cycles) were included in this study. The incidence of oxaliplatin HSR was 37.96%, according to the US National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (NTCAE) version 5.0, grade 1, grade 2 and higher grades were 27.35% (67 patients), 6.53% (16 patients) and 4.08% (10 patients), respectively. The proportion of male patients and patients with a history of prior exposure to platinum-based chemotherapy were statistically higher in the HSR group. The eosinophil count and serum creatinine level were also significantly greater in the HSR group. On the contrary, the total lymphocyte count and serum albumin level were significantly lower in the HSR group. The multivariate logistic regression found 5 risk factors with a significant difference. Male gender, prior exposure to platinum-based chemotherapy and elevated eosinophil count were associated with increased risk of oxaliplatin HSR, whereas elevated monocyte count and elevated serum albumin were protective factors for the development of oxaliplatin HSR. Conclusion: Colorectal cancer patients treated with an oxaliplatin-based regimen with male gender, prior exposure to platinum-based chemotherapy and elevated eosinophil count have a greater risk of oxaliplatin related hypersensitivity reactions.

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