Over-the-counter counseling in community pharmacies and job satisfaction among pharmacy professionals: A reflection of current scenario and possible solutions

Main Article Content

Ammar Abdulrahman Jairoun
Sabaa Saleh Al-Hemyari
Ammar Ali Saleh Jaber
Moyad Shahwan
Faris El- Dahiyat
Hidayah Karuniawati
Maimona Jairoun
Nasser M Alorfi

Keywords

Community pharmacist, Dispensing practices, OTC, Job satisfaction, Counselling

Abstract

Objectives: This study assessed community pharmacist counseling and dispensing practices to determine their relationship with job satisfaction among pharmacists. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2021 and September 2021on a random sample of community pharmacists. The inclusion criteria were licensed community pharmacists with at least3months of professional experience. The researchers conducted face-to-face interviews using a developed structured questionnaire. The research instrument was comprised of two sections: demographic information and dispensing practices. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 24. Results: a total of 543pharmacists participated in this study. The average age of respondents was 31 ± 7 SD. The average dispensing practice score was 75% with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of [73.3%, 76.7%]. Better dispensing practices were common among older participants (odds ratio (OR)1.010; 95% CI 1.001–1.020), postgraduates (OR 1.191; 95% CI 1.055–1.344), pharmacists from pharmacy chains (OR 1.452; 95% CI 1.285–1.640), participants with more than 10 years of experience (OR 1.286; 95% CI 1.089–1.520), pharmacists who graduated from regional universities (OR 1.200; 95% CI 1.129–1.497), and pharmacists who graduated from international universities (OR 1.413; 95% CI 1.212–1.648). However, poor dispensing practices were common among participants who were not satisfied with their current community pharmacist job (OR 0.487; 95% CI 0.410–0.577). Conclusion: Patient-centered management strategies oriented toward creating a counseling-friendly environment would open more space to achieve professional self-realization through cognitive services. This could benefit patients via consistent counseling services and increase pharmacists’ satisfaction with their job and profession.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 245 | pdf Downloads 225

References

1. World Health Organization. The Selection and Use of Essential Medicines. Report of the WHO Expert Committee, 2002 (Including the 12th Model List of Essential Medicines). Technical Report Series No. 914. Geneva: WHO. 2003.
2. le Grand A, Hogerzeil HV, Haaijer-Ruskamp FM. Intervention research in rational use of drugs: A review. Health Policy Plan. 1999;14(2):89-102. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/14.2.89
3. Council of the International Pharmaceutical Federation. Joint statement by The International Pharmaceutical Federation and The World Self-Medication Industry. Responsible self-medication. The Hague. 1998 (cited 2015 Aug 30). https://www.fip.org/www/uploads/database_file.php?id=241&table_i.
4. Eickhoff C, Hammerlein A, Griese N, et al. Nature and frequency of drug-related problems in self-medication (over-thecounterdrugs) in daily community pharmacy practice in Germany. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2012;21(3):254-60. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.2241
5. Bosse N, Machado M, Mistry A. Efficacy of an over-the-counter intervention follow-up program in community pharmacies. JAm Pharm Assoc. 2012;52(4):535-40. https://doi.org/10.1331/JAPhA.2012.10093
6. Wong F, Chan F, You J, et al. Patient self management and pharmacist-led patient self-management in Hong Kong: a focus group study from different healthcare professionals’ perspectives. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:121. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-11-121
7. Piecuch A, Kozlowska-Wojciechowska M. Self-medication in Poland: the pharmacist’s advisory role in Warsaw. Int J Clin Pharm. 2013;35(2):225-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-012-9734-z
8. Brata C, Marjadi B, Schneider C, et al. Information- gathering for self-medication via Eastern Indonesian community pharmacies:a cross-sectional study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015;15(1):8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-014-0670-6
9. Order of the Minister of Health of the Republic of Lithuania. Regulation on good pharmacy practice. Valstybes zinios.2007;68:2690.
10. International Pharmaceutical Federation. Statement of principle self-care including self-medication-the professional role of the pharmacist. The Hague: FIP. 1996. http://www.fip.org/www/uploads/database_file.php?id=204&table_id=.
11. Kamat VR, Nichter M. Pharmacies, self-medication, and pharmaceutical marketing in Bombay. Indian Soc Sci Med. 1998;47(6):779-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0277-9536(98)00134-8
12. Tumwikirize WA, Ekwaru PJ, Mohammed K, et al. Management of acute respiratory infections in drug shops and private pharmacies in Uganda: A study of counter attendants’ knowledge and reported behaviour. East Afr Med J. 2004;Suppl:33-40.
13. Basak SC, Prasad GS, Arunkumar A, et al. An attempt to develop community pharmacy practice: Results of two surveys and two workshops conducted in Tamil Nadu. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2005;67:362-67.
14. Awad AI, Ball DE, Eltayeb IB. Improving rational drug use in Africa: The example of Sudan. East Mediterr Health J. 2007;13(5):1202-11. https://doi.org/10.26719/2007.13.5.1202
15. Waako PJ, Odoi-adome R, Obua C, et al. Existing capacity to manage pharmaceuticals and related commodities in East Africa:An assessment with specific reference to antiretroviral therapy. Hum Resour Health. 2009;7:21. https://doi.org/10.1186/1478-4491-7-21
16. Dameh M. Pharmacy in the United arab emirates. South Med Rev. 2009;2(1):15-18.
17. Hasan S, Sulieman H, Chapman CB, et al. Community pharmacy services in the United Arab Emirates. Int J Pharm Pract.2012;20(4):218-225. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00182.x
18. Smith P, Kendall L, Hulin C. The measurement of satisfaction in work and retirement: a strategy for the study of attitudes.Chicago: Rand-McNally. 1969.
19. Wagner C. Organizational commitment as a predictor variable in nursing turnover research: literature review. J Adv Nurs.2007;60(3):235-47. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2007.04421.x
20. Seston E, Hassell K, Ferguson J, et al. Exploring the relationship between pharmacists’ job satisfaction, intention to quit the profession, and actual quitting. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2009;5(2):121-32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2008.08.002
21. Hardigan P, Carvajal M. Job satisfaction among practicing pharmacists: a Rasch analysis. Internet J Allied Health Sci Pract. 2007;5:1-9.
22. Saleh S, Otis J. Age and level of job satisfaction. Pers Psychol. 1964;17:425-30.
23. Jairoun AA, Al-Hemyari SS, Jairoun M, et al. Hidden factors in community pharmacy related to medication safety risks:Pushing patient safety to breaking point. Research in social & administrative pharmacy: RSAP. 2021;S1551-7411. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.11.005
24. Gidman W. Increasing community pharmacy workloads in England. Int J Clin Pharm. 2011;33(3):512-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-011-9498-x
25. Gaither C, Nadkarni A. Interpersonal interactions, job demands and work-related outcomes in pharmacy. Int J Pharm Pract.2012;20(2):80-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2011.00165.x
26. Kebodeaux C, Grise W, Hudspeth B, et al. Chain community pharmacists’ willingness, attitudes, and barriers in providing selfcare medication and supplement recommendations. Self Care. 2012;3(2):21-32.
27. Cox E, Fitzpatrick V. Pharmacists’ job satisfaction and perceived utilization of skills. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 1996;53(17):281-4.https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/56.17.1733
28. Awalom M, Tesfa A, Kidane M, et al. Eritrean pharmacists’ job satisfaction and their attitude to reprofessionalize pharmacy into pharmaceutical care. Int J Clin Pharm. 2015;37(2):335-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-015-0064-9
29. Lau W, Pang J, Chui W. Job satisfaction and the association with involvement in clinical activities among hospital pharmacists in Hong Kong. Int J Pharm Pract. 2011;19(4):253-63. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2010.00085.x
30. Barakat-Haddad C, Siddiqua A, “Prevalence and predictors of over-the-counter medication use among adolescents in the United Arab Emirates,” World Health Organization - Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean. 2018;23(11):744-753.https://doi.org/10.26719/2017.23.11.7441.
31. UAE has over 2000 private pharmacies, 4000 professionals. Available at: http://wam.ae/en/details/1395228626943
32. Awalom M, Tesfa A, Kidane M, et al. Eritrean pharmacists’ job satisfaction and their attitude to reprofessionalize pharmacyinto pharmaceutical care. Int J Clin Pharm. 2015;37(2):335-41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-015-0064-9
33. Bond C, Raehl C. Pharmacists’ assessment of dispensing errors: risk factors, practice sites, professional functions, and satisfaction. Pharmacotherapy. 2001;21(5):614-26. https://doi.org/10.1592/phco.21.6.614.34544
34. Urbonas G, Kubilienė L. Assessing the relationship between pharmacists’ job satisfaction and over-the-counter counseling at community pharmacies. Int J Clin Pharm, 2016;38(2):252-60. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-015-0232-y
35. Lawshe CH. A quantitative approach to content validity. Pers Psychol. 1975;28:563-75.
36. Polit DF, Beck CT, Owen SV. Is the CVI an acceptable indicator of content validity? Appraisal and recommendations. Res Nurs Health. 2007;30:459-67. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.20199
37. Mináriková D, Malovecká I, Foltán V. Consumer satisfaction with pharmaceutical care in Slovak community pharmacies. ActaFac Pharm Univ Comen LXII. 2015;62(1):1-6. https://doi.org/10.2478/afpuc20140015
38. Rayes IK, Hassali MA, Abduelkarem AR. Perception of community pharmacists towards their current professional role in the healthcare system of Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2015;23:235-240.
39. Mohamed SSE, Mahmoud AA, Ali AA. Barriers for implementation of pharmaceutical care practice in community pharmacies in Sudan. Khartoum Medical Journal. 2014;7(1):921-931.
40. Osemene KP, Ihekoronye RM, Jegede A. Assessing Counseling Practices of Community Pharmacists in Nigeria. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020;23:87-99.
41. Veiga P, Cavaco AM, Lapão LV, et al. Self-medication consultations in community pharmacy: an exploratory study on teams’ performance, client-reported outcomes and satisfaction. Pharm Pract. 2021;19(1):2138. https://doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2021.1.2138
42. Mináriková D, Malovecká I, Lehocká L, et al. The assessment of patient satisfaction and attendance of community pharmacies in Slovakia.Eur. Pharm. J. 2016;2:23-29.
43. Javed B, Kheir N, Yousil A. Qatar Foundation: Annual Research Conference Proceedings. 2016. https://doi.org/10.5339/9farc.2016.H BPP1645
44. Croft H, Nesbitt K, Rasiah R, et al. Safe dispensing in community pharmacies: applying the software, hardware, environment and liveware (SHELL) model. Clin Pharm. 2017. https://doi.org/10.1211/cp.2017.20202919
45. Toklu HZ., Akici A, Oktay S, et al. The pharmacy practice of community pharmacists in Turkey.Marmara Pharmaceutical Journal.2010;14:53-60.
46. Ansari M. Evaluation of community pharmacies regarding dispensing practices of antibiotics in two districts of central Nepal.PLoS ONE. 2017;12(9):e0183907. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0183907
47. Al Khalidi D, Wazaify M. Assessment of pharmacists’ job satisfaction and job related stress in Amman. Int J Clin Pharm.2013;35(5):821-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-013-9815-7
48. Yang S, Kim D, Choi HJ, et al. A comparison of patients’ and pharmacists’ satisfaction with medication counseling provided by community pharmacies: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016;16:131. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1374-x
49. Alageel S, Abanmy N. BMC Health Serv Res. 2015;15:557.
50. Suru AS, Getachew E, Teressa E, et al. Pharm Pract. 2017;15:890.