Main Article Content
Pharmacists, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, UAE, COVID-19, Cross-sectional
Objectives: Internationally, pharmacists have shown a pivotal role in alleviating the unprecedented spread of the COVID-19 as they are the first touchpoint to patients. The aim of this study to evaluate the UAE pharmacists’ knowledge about and practice in the global COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted during a period from August 2020 to January 2021. A well-designed standardized English-based questionnaire was developed based on current literature and employed for this study. Findings: The results showed that 45.7% of the participated pharmacists expected to have a good level of knowledge about COVID-19 transmission, symptoms and treatment. Among the participated community pharmacists, around 25.7% educated their patients and 17.0% counseled the public about the current available therapeutic options for managing COVID-19 symptom. Most practiced activities hospital pharmacists (17.4%) was exploring new drug therapies or uses, while few hospital pharmacists (13.0%) participated in the antimicrobial stewardship programs and monitored antibiotic uses for COVID-19 cases and co-infections. Pharmacists at age ≥40 years old and have an experience of ≥10 years in the pharmacy field were more knowledgeable about COVID-19 with higher scores (p <0.001 and p= 0.001; respectively). Conclusions: The study revealed an appropriate average knowledge and practice toward COVID-19 among community and hospital pharmacists.
2. Wang L, Wang Y, Ye D, Liu Q. Review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) based on current evidence. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2020;55(6):105948. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105948
3. MOHAP. COVID-19 Information Center UAE: Ministry of Health and Prevention; 2020. https://www.mohap.gov.ae/en/AwarenessCenter/Pages/COVID19-Information-Center.aspx.
4. EPC. UAE Model in Confronting Coronavirus Pandemic UAE: Emirates Policy Center. 2020.
5. Ung COL. Community pharmacist in public health emergencies: Quick to action against the coronavirus 2019-nCoV outbreak.Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP. 2020;16(4):583-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.02.003
6. Zheng SQ, Yang L, Zhou PX, et al. Recommendations and guidance for providing pharmaceutical care services during COVID-19 pandemic: A China perspective. Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP. 2021;17(1):1819-24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.03.012
7. Health C. COVID-19: Testing information: CVS health; 2020.
8. Elbeddini A, Prabaharan T, Almasalkhi S, et al. Pharmacists and COVID-19. Journal of pharmaceutical policy and practice. 2020;13(1):36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00241-3
9. Stevens MP, Patel PK, Nori P. Involving antimicrobial stewardship programs in COVID-19 response efforts: All hands on deck. Infection control and hospital epidemiology. 2020;41(6):744-5. https://doi.org/10.1017/ice.2020.69
10. Al-Quteimat Om Msc B, Amer Am R. SARS-CoV-2 outbreak: How can pharmacists help? Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP. 2021;17(2):480-2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.03.018
11. Aruru M, Truong HA, Clark S. Pharmacy Emergency Preparedness and Response (PEPR): a proposed framework for expanding pharmacy professionals’ roles and contributions to emergency preparedness and response during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP. 2021;17(1):1967-77. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.002
12. Raosoft. Sample size calculator. 2021.
13. FCSA. Population and Demography, Health, Pharmacists UAE: Federal Competitiveness and Statistics Authority. 2019.
14. McCourt E. Improving pharmacist involvement in pandemic influenza planning and response in Australia Australian Healthcare and Hospital Association. 2018.
15. Arain S, Thalapparambath R, Al Ghamdi FH. COVID-19 pandemic: Response plan by the Johns Hopkins Aramco Healthcare inpatient pharmacy department. Research in social & administrative pharmacy: RSAP. 2021;17(1):2009-11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.05.016
16. Ying W, Qian Y, Kun Z. Drugs supply and pharmaceutical care management practices at a designated hospital during the COVID-19 epidemic. Research in social & administrative pharmacy: RSAP. 2021;17(1):1978-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.001
17. Bukhari N, Rasheed H, Nayyer B, et al. Pharmacists at the frontline beating the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of pharmaceutical policy and practice. 2020;13:8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00210-w
18. Zeenny RM, Ramia E, Akiki Y, et al. Assessing knowledge, attitude, practice, and preparedness of hospital pharmacists in Lebanon towards COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. Journal of pharmaceutical policy and practice. 2020;13:54.https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00266-8
19. Kara E, DemIrkan K, Unal S. Knowledge and Attitudes Among Hospital Pharmacists About COVID-19. Turkish journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2020;17(3):242-8. https://doi.org/10.4274/tjps.galenos.2020.72325
20. Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, et al. Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Jama. 2020;323(11):1061-9. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.1585
21. Ludwig J, McWhinnie H. Antipyretic drugs in patients with fever and infection: literature review. British journal of nursing.2019;28(10):610-8. https://doi.org/10.12968/bjon.2019.28.10.610
22. Kauffman RE, Sawyer LA, Scheinbaum ML. Antipyretic efficacy of ibuprofen vs acetaminophen. American journal of diseases of children. 1992;146(5):622-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0196-0644(05)81774-3
23. Weikle B. WHO clarifies guidance on ibuprofen, says there’s no evidence it can worsen COVID-19: Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). 2020.
24. Shang L, Zhao J, Hu Y, Du R, Cao B. On the use of corticosteroids for 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Lancet. 2020;395(10225):683-4.https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(20)30361-5
25. Cennimo DJ. What is the role of hydroxychloroquine plus azithromycin in the treatment of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)?: Medscape. 2021.
26. Gautret P, Lagier JC, Parola P, et al. Hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin as a treatment of COVID-19: results of an open-label non-randomized clinical trial. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2020;56(1):105949. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106063
27. Cradiology ACo. Ventricular Arrhythmia Risk Due to Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin Treatment For COVID-19: Cardiology
28. Name JJ, Souza ACR, Vasconcelos AR, et al. Zinc, Vitamin D and Vitamin C: Perspectives for COVID-19 With a Focus on Physical Tissue Barrier Integrity. Frontiers in nutrition. 2020;7:606398. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2020.606398
29. Codella R, Chirico A, Lucidi F, et al. The immune-modulatory effects of exercise should be favorably harnessed against COVID-19.Journal of endocrinological investigation. 2021;44(5):1119-22. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40618-020-01403-5
30. WHO. Guidance on COVID-19 for the care of older people and people living in long-term care facilities, other non-acute carefac ilities and home care: World Health Organization. 2020.
31. Al Mazrouei N, Ibrahim RM, Al Meslamani AZ, et al. The evolving role of community pharmacists during COVID-19 in the UAE; assessing preparedness and knowledge. The International journal of pharmacy practice. 2021;29(2):137-44. https://doi.org/10.1093/ijpp/riaa003
32. Carico RR, Jr., Sheppard J, Thomas CB. Community pharmacists and communication in the time of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model. Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP. 2021;17(1):1984-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.03.017
33. Basheti IA, Nassar R, Barakat M, et al. Pharmacists’ readiness to deal with the coronavirus pandemic: Assessing awareness and perception of roles. Research in social & administrative pharmacy : RSAP. 2021;17(3):514-22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.020
34. Fox ER, Sweet BV, Jensen V. Drug shortages: a complex health care crisis. Mayo Clinic proceedings. 2014;89(3):361-73. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.11.014
35. ASHP. ASHP Statement on the Pharmacist’s Role in Antimicrobial Stewardship and Infection Prevention and Control: American
Society of Health-System Pharmacists. 2020.
36. WHO. Hospital readiness checklist for COVID-19, 24 February 2020 (produced by WHO/Europe): World Health Organization.2020.
37. Elbeddini A, Wen CX, Tayefehchamani Y, et al. Mental health issues impacting pharmacists during COVID-19. Journal of pharmaceutical policy and practice. 2020;13:46. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00252-0
38. Johnston K, O’Reilly CL, Cooper G, et al. The burden of COVID-19 on pharmacists. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association : JAPhA. 2021;61(2):e61-e4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2020.10.013
39. ASHP. PHARMACISTS AS FRONT-LINE RESPONDERS FOR COVID-19 PATIENT CARE: Executive Summary: American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. 2020.