Main Article Content
Coronavirus, COVID-19, Pandemics, Pharmacists, Patient experience, Syria
Background: Patients infected with coronavirus have new experiences and hence new needs from the healthcare sector. Acknowledging patients’ experiences can exhibit promising outcomes in coronavirus management. Pharmacists are considered a vital pillar in managing patients’ experiences during their infection. Objective: To assess the experience of individuals who have been infected with coronavirus and the roles played by pharmacists to meet their new needs. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional survey was developed based on previous literature, validated, and conducted in Syria. The survey included items related to participants’ COVID-19 experiences, and items concerning the roles played by pharmacists when participants were infected. Items were tested for face validity. Data collection was conducted in May and June 2021. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: The study participants (n=576) had a mean age of 37.99 years. Fatigue was the most reported symptom by the participants. Vitamin C was the most used supplement (76.4%), and 66.5% of the participants used herbs during their infection. More than 60.0% of the participants stated that their anxiety and stress levels increased during their infection. Around 40.0% of the participants needed to visit a specialist doctor. Only 5.4% needed to use an artificial respiration apparatus. The mean of the participants’ infection severity was 4.97 (SD=2.30) out of 10. The severity of the infection was significantly affected by being older, female, smoking, and having a chronic condition. Doctors followed by pharmacists were the healthcare providers who advised participants to take certain medications/herbs. More than one-third of the participants strongly agreed/agreed that the pharmacist played important and effective roles during their infection. Conclusion: Patients’ experiences indicated that fatigue was the most reported symptom by the participants diagnosed with coronavirus infection, while vitamin C was the most used supplement. Pharmacists have a major role in helping participants manage their infection and are considered a vital pillar in patients’ experiences since they provided patients with the needed medications.
2. The World Health Organization. 2019-nCoV outbreak is an emergency of international concern. 2020. Available from: https://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/health-emergencies/international-health-regulations/news/news/2020/2/2019-ncovoutbreak-is-an-emergency-of-international-concern
3. Yang Y, Peng F, Wang R, et al. The deadly coronaviruses: The 2003 SARS pandemic and the 2020 novel coronavirus epidemic in China. J Autoimmun. 2020;109:102434. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2020.102434
4. Visacri MB, Figueiredo IV, Lima T de M. Role of pharmacist during the COVID-19 pandemic: A scoping review. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2021;17(1):1799-806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.07.003
5. Abbara A, Rayes D, Fahham O, et al. Coronavirus 2019 and health systems affected by protracted conflict: The case of Syria. Int J Infect Dis. 2020;96:192-5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.05.003
6. Al ahdab S. A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) towards COVID-19 pandemic among the Syrian residents. BMC Public Health. 2021;21(1):296. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10353-3
7. Syrian Ministry of Health. Available from: https://www.moh.gov.sy/Default.aspx?tabid=246&language=en-US. [Accessed:30October 2021].
8. COVID-19 live - Coronavirus statistics - worldometer. Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/
9. Al-tameemi K, Khudur H, Dayoob H, et al. SARS-COV-2 pandemic in Syria: symptoms and treatments. Br J Med Heal Res. 2021.
10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. COVID-19. How to protect yourself and others. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/prevent-getting-sick/prevention.html. [Accessed: 15August 2021].
11. Hedima EW, Adeyemi MS, Ikunaiye NY. Community pharmacists: on the frontline of health service against COVID-19 in LMICs. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2020;17(1):1964-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.013
12. Kretchy IA, Asiedu-danso M, Kretchy J. Medication management and adherence during the COVID-19 pandemic: perspectivesand experiences from low-and middle-income countries. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2020;17(1):2023-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.04.007
13. Song Z, Hu Y, Zheng S, et al. Hospital pharmacists’ pharmaceutical care for hospitalized patients with COVID-19:recommendations and guidance from clinical experience. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2021;17(1):2027-31. https://doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.03.027
14. FIP. COVID-19: guidelines for pharmacists and the pharmacy workforce. 2020. Available from: https://www.fip.org/files/content/priority-areas/coronavirus/COVID-19-Guidelines-for-pharmacists-and-the-pharmacy-workforce.pdf. [Accessed: 9July 2021].
15. Saeed BQ, Al-Shahrabi R, Alhaj SS, et al. Side effects and perceptions following Sinopharm COVID-19 vaccination. Int J Infect Dis. 2021;111:219-226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2021.08.013
16. El-Shitany NA, Harakeh S, Badr-Eldin SM, et al. Minor to moderate side effects of Pfizer-Biontech COVID-19 vaccine among Saudi residents: A retrospective cross-sectional study. Int J Gen Med. 2021;14:1389-401. https://doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S310497
17. Eng J. Sample size estimation: how many individuals should be studied? Radiology. 2003;227(2):309-13.
18. Asan U, Soyer A. Failure mode and effects analysis under uncertainty: a literature review and tutorial. Intelligent Systems Reference Library. 2016;97:265-325.
19. The World Health Organization. Syrian Arab Republic Situation 2021. Available from: https://covid19.who.int/region/emro/country/sy
20. The World Health Organization. Coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Available from: https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_3
21. Iannuzzi L, Salzo AE, Angarano G, et al. Gaining back what is lost: recovering the sense of smell in mild to moderate patients after COVID-19. Chem Senses. 2020;45(9):875-81. https://doi.org/10.1093/chemse/bjaa066
22. Carr AC, Rowe S. The emerging role of vitamin C in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. MDPI. 2020;12(11):3286.https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12113286
23. Abobaker A, Alzwi A, Alraied AHA. Overview of the possible role of vitamin C in management of COVID-19. Pharmacol Reports.2020;72(6):1517-28. https://doi.org/10.1007/s43440-020-00176-1
24. Hemilä H, Man AME de. Vitamin C and infections. Front Med. 2020.
25. Antonio ADS, Wiedemann LSM, Veiga-Junior VF. Natural products’ role against COVID-19. RSC Adv. 2020;10:23379-93.
26. Huang J, Tao G, Liu J, et al. Current prevention of COVID-19: natural products and herbal medicine. Front Pharmacol.2020;11:588508. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.588508
27. Boozari M, Hosseinzadeh H. Natural products for COVID-19 prevention and treatment regarding to previous coronavirusinfections and novel studies. Phyther Res. 2020;35(2):864-76. https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6873
28. Ekzayez A, Al-Khalil M, Jasiem M, et al. COVID-19 response in northwest Syria: innovation and community engagement in a complex conflict. J Public Health (Bangkok). 2020;42(3):504-9. https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdaa068
29. Zandifar A, Badrfam R, Yazdani S, et al. Prevalence and severity of depression, anxiety, stress and perceived stress in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2020;19(2):1431-8. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00667-1
30. Mazza MG, De Lorenzo R, Conte C, et al. Anxiety and depression in COVID-19 survivors: Role of inflammatory and clinical predictors. Brain Behav Immun. 2020;89:594-600. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.07.037
31. Shang W, Dong J, Ren Y, et al. The value of clinical parameters in predicting the severity of COVID-19. J Med Virol. 2020;92(10):2188-92. https://doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26031
32. Li L, Sun W, Han M, et al. A study on the predictors of disease severity of COVID-19. Med Sci Monit. 2020;26:e927167. https://doi.org/10.12659/MSM.927167
33. Wolff D, Nee S, Hickey NS, et al. Risk factors for Covid-19 severity and fatality: a structured literature review. Infection.
34. Misra A. Doctors and healthcare workers at frontline of COVID 19 epidemic: Admiration, a pat on the back, and need for extreme caution. Diabetes Metab Syndr Clin Res Rev. 2020;14(3):255-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.03.006
35. Bukhari N, Rasheed H, Nayyer B, et al. Pharmacists at the frontline beating the COVID-19 pandemic. J Pharm Policy Pract.2020;13:8. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00210-w
36. Merks P, Jakubowska M, Drelich E, et al. The legal extension of the role of pharmacists in light of the COVID-19 global pandemic.
Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2021;17(1):1807-12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2020.05.033
37. Basheti IA, El-hajji F, Nassar R, et al. Pharmacists’ awareness of COVID-19 and perceptions of their roles, barriers, and roles ofpolicymakers: Exploring the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Int J Clin Pract. 2021;75(6):1-11. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14074