Factors Hindering the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Practice in Egyptian Hospitals

Main Article Content


Clinical pharmacy, Factors, Hindering, Career path, Egypt


Background: The direction toward incorporating clinical pharmacy services is increasing worldwide but there are many barriers that hinder its implementation in many countries. The types of barriers vary among countries according to their culture, population, education & economic status. Objective: This study aims to investigate factors hindering the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice in Egyptian hospitals. Methods: Hundred hospital pharmacists working in various reputable hospitals in Egypt participated in a descriptive cross-sectional survey designed as a questionnaire representing the main factors previously reported in the literature to hinder clinical pharmacy implementation in different countries around the world. Cronbach alpha was calculated to test the reliability of the questionnaire. Likert plot was used to graphically present the participants’ responses. Results: The most significant factors that participants reported to hinder the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice in Egyptian hospitals were the lack of clear career path, financial resources, and leadership support. The percentage of participants who agreed that such factors were key players in hindering the implementation of clinical pharmacy practice was 76%, 74%, and 57% respectively. Conclusion: A number of factors were found to impede clinical pharmacy implementation in Egyptian hospitals. Taking corrective measures to resolve such hindrances should ensure proper hospital pharmacy practice and should positively reflect on patient healthcare services provided at the national level.


Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 144 | pdf Downloads 201


1. Preslaski CR, Lat I, MacLaren R, et al. Pharmacist contributions as members of the multidisciplinary ICU team. Chest.2013;144(5):1687-1695. https://doi:10.1378/chest.12-1615
2. Berenguer B, La Casa C, de la Matta MJ, et al. Pharmaceutical care: past, present and future. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(31):3931-3946. https://doi:10.2174/1381612043382521
3. Tegegn HG, Abdela OA, Mekuria AB, et al. Challenges and opportunities of clinical pharmacy services in Ethiopia: Aqualitative study from healthcare practitioners’ perspective. Pharm Pract. 2018;16(1):1121. https://doi.org/10.18549/ PharmPract.2018.01.1121
4. Penm J, Moles R, Wang H, et al. Factors affecting the implementation of clinical pharmacy services in China. Qual Health Res.2014;24(3):345-356. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732314523680
5. Ghazal R, Hassan NAG, Ghaleb O, et al. Barriers to the implementation of Pharmaceutical Care into the UAE community pharmacies. IOSR J Pharm. 2014;4(05):68-74. http://doi:10.9790/3013-0405068074
6. Al-azzam SI, Shara M, Alzoubi KH, et al. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services at a university hospital in Jordan. Int J Pharm Pract. 2013;21(5):337-340. https://doi:10.1111/ijpp.12009
7. Agaceta C, Diano G, Lintag M, et al. Perceived barriers to the implementation of pharmaceutical care among pharmacists in private and government hospitals in Metro Manila. Int J Mol Sci Res. 2014;5(08):436-440.
8. Abu-Gharbieh E, Fahmy S, Rasool BA, et al. Attitudes and perceptions of healthcare providers and medical students towards clinical pharmacy services in the United Arab Emirates. Trop J Pharm Res. 2010;9(5):421-430. https://doi:10.4314/tjpr.v9i5.61050
9. Alcântara TDS, Onozato T, Araújo Neto FC, et al. Perceptions of a group of hospital pharmacists and other professionals of the implementation of clinical pharmacy at a high complexity public hospital in Brazil. BMC Health Serv Res. 2018;18(1):242.https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-018-3036-7
10. Santos Júnior GAD, Onozato T, Rocha KSS, et al. Integration of clinical pharmacy services into the Brazilian health system using Problematization with Maguerez Arc. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2019;15(2):173-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2018.04.009
11. Foppa AA, Martins GA, Nascimento RF, et al. Experiential education in the pharmacy undergraduate curricula in Brazil. PharmPract. 2020 18 (1):1738. https://doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2020.1.1738
12. Bhagavathula AS, Sarkar BR, Patel I. Clinical pharmacy practice in developing countries: focus on India and Pakistan. Arch Pharma Pract 2014;5(2):91-94. http://doi:10.4103/2045-080X.132661
13. Patel H, Gurumurthy P. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in academic oncology practice in India. J Oncol Pharm Pract. 2017;25(2):369-381. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078155217739684
14. Khan TM. Challenges to pharmacy and pharmacy practice in Pakistan. Australas Med J. 2011;4(4):230-235. http://doi:10.4066/AMJ.2011.488
15. Faller EM, Cruz–Bacayo MFD, Abustan AB. Competency assessment of clinical pharmacy education in the Philippines: a basisfor curriculum framework. World J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci 2016;5(3):215-226.
16. Ongpoy Jr RC, David PP, Capistrano NB, et al. Revisiting the Philippine BS Pharmacy Curriculum After 13 Years: A Surveyon Pharmacist Practitioners for the Upcoming Curriculum Revision. Eur J Edu Stud 2019;6(4):38-52. https://doi:10.5281/zenodo.3293680
17. Zairina E, Khotib J, Ardianto C, et al. Unity in Diversity and the Standardisation of Clinical Pharmacy Services: Proceedings of the 17th Asian Conference on Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP 2017), Yogyakarta, Indonesia: CRC Press; 2017.
18. Faller EM, Hernandez MT, Hernandez AM, et al. Perception towards the Standardization of Competency Assessment Tools among Clinical Pharmacists in the Philippines. Indian J of Pharmaceut Edu Res. 2019;53(1):48-53. https://doi:10.5530/ijper.53.1.7
19. Lemay J, Waheedi M, Al-Taweel D, et al. Clinical pharmacy in Kuwait: Services provided, perceptions and barriers. Saudi pharmaceut J. 2018;26(4):481-486. https://doi:10.1016/j.jsps.2018.02.011
20. Katoue MG, Awad AI, Schwinghammer TL, et al. Pharmaceutical care in Kuwait: hospital pharmacists’ perspectives. Int J Clin Pharm. Int J Clin Pharm 2014;36(6):1170-1178. https://doi:10.1007/s11096-014-0013-z
21. Auta A, Strickland-Hodge B, Maz J. Challenges to clinical pharmacy practice in Nigerian hospitals: a qualitative exploration of stakeholders’ views. J Eval Clin Pract. 2016;22(5):699-706. https://doi:10.1111/jep.12520
22. Ekpenyong A, Udoh A, Kpokiri E, et al. An analysis of pharmacy workforce capacity in Nigeria. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2018;11:20. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-018-0147-9
23. Bilal AI, Tilahun Z, Gebretekle GB, et al. Current status, challenges and the way forward for clinical pharmacy service in Ethiopian public hospitals. BMC Health Serv Res. 2017;17(1):359. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-017-2305-1
24. Ryan M, Shao H, Yang L, et al. Clinical pharmacy education in China. Am J Pharm Educ. 2008;72(6):129. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7206129
25. Penm J, Li Y, Zhai S, et al. The impact of clinical pharmacy services in China on the quality use of medicines: a systematic review in the context of China’s current healthcare reform. Health Policy Plan. 2014;29(7):849-872. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czt067
26. Qin SB, Zhang XY, Fu Y, et al. The impact of the clinical pharmacist-led interventions in China: A systematic review and Meta-Analysis. Int J of Clin Pharm. 2020;42(2):366-377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-00972-y
27. Brazinha I, Fernandez-Llimos F. Barriers to the implementation of advanced clinical pharmacy services at Portuguese hospitals.Int J Clin Pharm. 2014;36(5):1031-1038. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11096-014-9991-0
28. Aperta J, Batista A. Education, and training for hospital pharmacists in Portugal. Eur J Hosp Pharm. 2012;19(4):409-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2012-000151
29. Ribeiro N, Mota-Filipe H, Guerreiro MP, et al. Primary health care policy and vision for community pharmacy and pharmacistsin Portugal. Pharm Pract. 2020;18(3):2043. https://doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2020.3.2043
30. Sabry NA, Farid SF. The role of clinical pharmacists as perceived by Egyptian physicians. Int J Pharm Pract. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice. 2014;22(5):354-359. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12087
31. Elmaaty MA, Elberry AA, Hussein RR, et al. Applicability of American College of Clinical Pharmacy (ACCP) competencies to clinical pharmacy practice in Egypt. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2020;18(3):1951. https://doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2020.3.1951
32. Abdel-Latif MM, Sabra K. Clinical pharmacy practice in Egyptian hospitals. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 2016;73(1): e63-e66. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp150250
33. Onozato T, Francisca DSCC, Milhome da CFAG, et al. Factors influencing the implementation of clinical pharmacy services for hospitalized patients: A mixed-methods systematic review. Res Social Adm Pharm. 2020;16(4):437-449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.06.018

Most read articles by the same author(s)