Development and evaluation of an interprofessional student-led influenza vaccination clinic for medical, nursing and pharmacy students

Main Article Content

Keywords

Students, Influenza, Vaccination, Clinic, Interprofessional, Education, Vaccines, Medicine, Nursing, Pharmacy, Experiential, Australia

Abstract

Background: Students in their final years of medicine, nursing and pharmacy degrees were invited to participate in an interprofessional influenza vaccination training course and clinic. Twenty-four students (8 from each discipline) were selected to participate. After vaccination training these students administered free influenza vaccines under supervision in two student-led clinics to 546 students in health and allied health programs prior to their clinical placements. Objective: To evaluate the students’ experience of the interprofessional vaccination training and clinic, and to evaluate the experiences of students who received their vaccination in the student-led clinic. Methods: Before and after participating, students completed a questionnaire evaluating their perceived knowledge of influenza vaccinations, and their skills and confidence in administering vaccinations and the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS). Eighteen students completed both the pre- and post-questionnaires. All students who received their flu vaccination were also asked to complete a short patient evaluation survey. Results: The course resulted in significant increases in the students’ perceived knowledge of influenza vaccinations (27.5% increase, p<0.001), skills in managing patients receiving influenza vaccines (23.9% increase, p<0.001) and confidence level to administer influenza vaccines (46.0% increase, p<0.001). While there was no significant change in any subscales of the RIPLS, open-ended responses indicated that the students enjoyed and could see the benefits of meeting and learning with and from students from other health disciplines. Of the students who received their influenza vaccination, 97.7% were very likely or somewhat likely to recommend the clinic to fellow students. Conclusion: The interprofessional vaccination training and influenza vaccination clinic provided effective interprofessional vaccination training and afforded an authentic interprofessional experiential opportunity.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 412 | pdf Downloads 311

References

1. The Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education. Interprofessional education – a definition.: The Centre for the Advancement of Interprofessional Education (CAIPE); 2002.
2. Buring SM, Bhushan A, Aroeseker A, et al. Interprofessional education: definitions, student competencies, and guidelines for implementation. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009;73:59. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj730459
3. Barrett J, Curran V, Glynn L, et al. CHSRF Synthesis: Interprofessional collaboration and quality primary healthcare. Ottawa, Ontario: Canadian Health Services Research Foundation; 2007.
4. Zwarenstein M, Goldman J, Reeves S. Interprofessional collaboration: Effects of practice-based interventions on professional practice and healthcare outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;3:CD000072. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.cd000072.pub2
5. World Health Organization. Framework for action on interprofessional education & collaborative practice. Geneva: WHO; 2010.
6. Australian Medical Council. Accreditation of Primary Medical Programs by the Australian Medical Council 2012.
7. Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council. Registered Nurse Accreditation Standards 2012: Australian Nursing and Midwifery Accreditation Council; 2012.
8. Australian Pharmacy Council. Accreditation Standards for Pharmacy Programs in Australia and New Zealand 2020: Australian Pharmacy Council; 2020.
9. Nisbet G, McAllister S, Morris C, et al. Moving beyond solutionism: Re‐imagining placements through an activity systems lens. Med Educ. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14345
10. Lucas C, Manzourani E. Role-emerging placements (REPs) – An evolving alternative for student pharmacist experiential education. RSAP. 2018;14:211-2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2017.10.006
11. Pittenger AL, Chapman SA, Frail CK, et al. Entrustable Professional Activities for Pharmacy Practice. Am J Pharm Educ. 2016;80:57. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80457
12. Rizal RE, Mediratta RP, Xie J, et al. Galvanizing medical students in the administration of influenza vaccines: the Stanford Flu Crew. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2015;6:471-7. https://doi.org/10.2147/amep.s70294
13. Banh HL, Cor K. Evaluation of an Injection Training and Certification Program for Pharmacy Students. Am J Pharm Educ. 2014;78:82. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe78482
14. Cheung W, Tam K, Cheung P, et al. Satisfaction with student pharmacists administering vaccinations in the University of Alberta
annual influenza campaign Can Pharm J (Ott). 2013;146:227-32. https://doi.org/10.1177/1715163513492628
15. Church D, Johnson S, Raman-Wilms L, et al. A literature review of the impact of pharmacy students in immunization initiatives. CPJ. 2016;149:3. https://doi.org/10.1177/1715163516641133
16. National Immunisation Committee. National Immunization Education Framework for Health Professionals: Australian Government Department of Health; 2018.
17. Australian Pharmacy Council. Standards for the Accreditation of Programs to support Pharmacist Administration of Vaccines: Australian Pharmacy Council; 2019.
18. Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy. Anaphylaxis e-training for health professionals: Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy (ASCIA); 2020.
19. Carroll PR, Hanrahan JR. Student-led Interprofessional Influenza Vaccination Clinic in a time of Coronavirus. Med Educ. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14323
20. NSW Health. Vaccination Clinics Implementation during COVID-19 response 2020.
21. Carroll PR, Chen Y, Vicheth P, et al. Evaluation of a vaccination training program for pharmacy graduands in Australia. Curr Pharm Learn Teach. 2020;12:850-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2020.02.016
22. Latrobe Community Health Service & the Health & Socialcare Interprofessional Network (HSN). Adapted Tool Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [Adapted from Parsell and Bligh’s RIPLS survey] Victoria, Australia 2009.
23. IBM. SPSS Statistics (for Mac) Version 24.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.; 2016.
24. Marcum ZA, Maffeo CM, Kalsekar I. The impact of an immunization training certificate program on the perceived knowledge, skills and attitudes of pharmacy students toward pharmacy-based immunizations. Pharm Pract (Granada). 2010;8(2):103-8.https://doi.org/10.4321/s1886-36552010000200004
25. Fossey E, Harvey C, Dermott FM, et al. Understanding and evaluating qualitative research. . Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2002;36:717-32. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1440-1614.2002.01100.x
26. Ten Cate O. Entrustability of professional activities and competency-based training. Med Educ. 2005;39:1176-7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2929.2005.02341.x
27. Al-Moteri M. Entrustable professional activities in nursing: A concept analysis. Int J Nurs Sci. 2020;7:277-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnss.2020.06.009
28. Pinilla S, Eric, Canisani A, et al. Working with entrustable professional activities in clinical education in undergraduate medical education: a scoping review. BMC Med Educ. 2021;21:721. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-021-02608-9
29. Rhodes LA, Weck Marciniak M, McLaughlin J, et al. Exploratory Analysis of Entrustable Professional Activities as a Performance Measure During Early Pharmacy Practice Experiences. Am J Pharm Educ. 2019;83:6517. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6517
30. ten Cate O. Nuts and Bolts of Entrustable Professional Activities. J Grad Med Educ. 2013;5:157-8. https://dx.doi.org/10.4300/JGME-D-12-00380.1
31. Haines ST, Gleason BL, Kantorovich A, et al. Report of the 2015-2016 Academic Affairs Standing Committee. Am J Pharm Educ.2016;80:9. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe809S20
32. Saini B, Shah S, Kearey P, et al. An Interprofessional Learning Module on Asthma Health Promotion. Am J Pharm Educ. 2011;75:30. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe75230
33. Margalit R, Thompson S, Visovsky C, et al. From professional silos to interprofessional education: campuswide focus on quality of care. Qual Manag Health Care. 2009;18:165-73. https://doi.org/10.1097/qmh.0b013e3181aea20d
34. Horsburgh M, Rain L, Williamson E. Multiprofessional learning: the attitudes of medical, nursing and pharmacy students to shared learning. Med Educ. 2001;876-883. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2923.2001.00959.x
35. McFadyen A, Webster V, Strachan K, et al. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale: a possible more stable sub-scale for the original version of RIPLS. J Interprof Care. 2005;19:595-603. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820500430157
36. Mahler C, Rochon J, Karstens S, et al. Internal consistency of the readiness for interprofessional learning scale in German health care students and professionals. BMC Med Educ. 2014. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-14-145
37. Oates M, Davidson M. A critical appraisal of instruments to measure outcomes of interprofessional education. Med Educ. 2015;49:386-98. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12681
38. Mahler C, Berger S, Reeves S. The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS): A problematic evaluative scale for the interprofessional field. J Interprof Care. 2015;29:289-91. https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2015.1059652
39. King S, Greidanus E, Major R, et al. A cross-institutional examination of readiness for interprofessional learning. J Interprof Care. 2012;26:108-14. https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2011.640758
40. Leithead III J, Garbee DD, Yu Q, et al. Examining interprofessional learning perceptions among students in a simulation-based operating room team training experience. J Interprof Care. 2019;33:26-31. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2018.1513464
41. Omnibus N. Newspoll Omnibus Survey on adult flu vaccinations: summary report 2014.