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Pharmacies, Primary Health Care, Delivery of Health Care, Integrated, Ambulatory Care, Community Health Services, Pharmacists, Community Pharmacy Services, Professional Practice, Jordan
Jordan is considered a low middle-income country with a population of 9.956 million in 2018. It is considered the training center for healthcare professions in the region, as the Jordanian healthcare sector has seen remarkable development. In 2017, the expenditure on health as a percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was estimated to be around 8%. The healthcare sector is divided into two main sectors; the public and the private sector with both including hospitals, primary care clinics and pharmacies. The Jordanian government has a strong commitment to health and educational programs; hence, an increase in the number of pharmacy schools and pharmacy graduates has occurred in the past few years. Health authorities, such as the Jordan Food and Drug Association (JFDA) and the Jordan Pharmaceutical Association (JPA) have played an important role in ensuring the availability and affordability of medications, and has influenced the practice of pharmacists. Protecting the pharmaceutical market and professional interests, preserving pharmacists' rights, building needed cooperation with the internal federation, and maintaining professional ethics are some of the objectives for the JPA. Hence, the integration of community pharmacists into the primary healthcare system is considered vital to the different health authorities in Jordan, emphasizing the fact that community pharmacists are the most trusted, accessible, and affordable healthcare providers in the country. There have been many developments in the pharmacy practice in the past recent years, including the establishment of ‘Good Pharmacy Practice’, new curricular development based on the international accreditation (the ACPE), a new immunization program, and health services research aimed to save patients’ lives, influence expenses, and improve patients’ quality of life. Although these developments in pharmacy practice are promising, challenges continue to exist, specifically the establishment of an evidence base for pharmaceutical care services such as the medication management review service.
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