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Drug Hypersensitivity, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Hospitalization, Incidence, Macrolides, Fluoroquinolones, beta-Lactams, Medication Errors, Inappropriate Prescribing, Retrospective Studies, Ukraine
Background: Antibiotic allergy is an important clinical and social-economical issue.
Objective: The main objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, causative drugs, and risk groups of antibiotic allergy as a reason for hospitalization. The secondary objective was to evaluate the treatment of antibiotic allergy through the identification of drug related problems (DRPs).
Methods: This retrospective hospital-based study was carried out in one of Lviv city hospitals (Ukraine) from January 2015 to December 2017. Patients with antibiotic allergy as a cause for hospitalization were included in this study.
Results: In this study the incidence of antibiotic allergy was 2.0% (95%СI 1.6:2.4) of all admissions to the Unit that provides special medical care for adult inpatients with allergy diseases and allergy reactions. The mean age of patients was 48.5 years (SD=17.0; range 18-83 years) with female predominance (78.2%; 95%СI 68.9:85.2). Antibiotic hypersensitivity reactions manifested as urticaria with angioedema (52.5%; 95%СI 42.3:62.5), urticaria (36.6%; 95%СI 27.8:46.8) or angioedema (10.9%; 95%СI 5.6:18.7). Beta-lactams (48.5%; 95%СI 38.5:58.7), fluoroquinolones (13.9%; 95%СI 7.8%:22.2%) and macrolides (7.9%; 95%СI 3.5:15.0) were specified as the main causative drugs. All patients during hospitalization (a mean of 8.2 days; SD=2.2; range 2-13 days) took at least 3 medicines (a mean of 5.4 medicines per patient; SD=1.2; range 3-12 medicines). The total number of identified DRPs was 400, a mean of 4.0 DRPs per patient (SD=1.8). The most frequently identified type of DRPs was inappropriate route of drug administration (25.0%; 95%СI 20.8:29.5). This was followed by duplicate prescriptions (23.5%; 95%СI 19.4:28.0) and insufficient frequency of drug administration (19.0%; 95%СI 15.3:23.2). Potential drug-drug interactions and inappropriate drug prescriptions each accounted for 16.0% (95% СI 12.6:20.0) of all DRPs. Comparing all above items in 2015, 2016 and 2017 showed no statistically significant changes (p˃0.05).
Conclusions: Antibiotic allergy is a common reason for admissions. The treatment of antibiotic allergy is associated with numerous DRPs. Our results could be useful for development of strategies for improving the safety and quality of pharmacotherapy.
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