Creation and validation of a semi-quantitative instrument to assess the confidence of pharmacists in medication consultation for patients with depression: The Pharmacists' Confidence scale about Medication Consultation for Depressive patients (PCMCD)

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Depression, Depressive Disorder, Pharmacists, Self Concept, Referral and Consultation, Counseling, Factor Analysis, Statistical, Surveys and Questionnaires, Validation Studies as Topic


Objectives: To develop a semi-quantitative instrument to assess pharmacists’ confidence in medication counseling for patients with depression, The Pharmacists' Confidence scale about Medication Consultation for Depressive patients (PCMCD), and investigated its validity.

Methods: Following discussions with practicing pharmacists, we developed a 12-item questionnaire to assess pharmacists’ confidence in medication counseling for patients with depression. We launched web-based cross-sectional survey during November and December 2018 to 77 pharmacists employed at drug chain stores in Kansai area. Factor analysis was performed to evaluate the configuration concept validity. The least-squares method was used for factor extraction, and the resulting factors were subjected to direct oblimin rotation, with a factor loading cut-off of 0.4. To assess internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha values were calculated for each of the extracted factors (subscales). A multiple regression analysis was performed using simultaneous forced entry, with the scores obtained for each subscale as dependent variables and responder attributes as independent variables in order to investigate the factors associated with each subscale.

Results: During the factor analysis procedure, four questions were excluded by the cut-off rule. Eventually, a model with three subscales was identified, with a cumulative sum of squared loadings being 61.9%. The subscales were termed “relationship building,” “comprehension of condition,” and “information provision” based on the nature of the questions relevant for each of them. The Cronbach’s alpha values for these subscales were 0.92, 0.73, and 0.72, respectively. The average inter-item correlation was 0.378. In addition, multiple regression analysis revealed that there were significant correlations between pharmacist career and both relationship building and information provision.

Conclusions: The PCMCD model demonstrated a satisfactory construct validity and internal consistency. This model will provide an excellent tool for assessing pharmacists’ confidence in depression care.


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